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A generalization of the Shaffer Stroke for n-valued logic.

 by C.S.Scholten

For binary variables —i.e. ranging over {0, 1}— x and y the “Shaffer Stroke” —a1ias “alternative denial” or “nand”— is the operator —or binary function— denoted by

 x | y
and (usually) defined as
 1 - x.y . As 1 - x.y = (x.y + 1) mod 2 and x.y = min(x, y)
an alternative definition is:
 x | y = (min(x, y) + 1) mod 2 .
It is well-known [1] that any binary function of k binary arguments can be expressed using the Shaffer Stroke as the only primitive operator.

In the following we regard n-ary variables —i.e. ranging over {0, 1, ..., n-1}— and shall demonstrate that any n-ary function of k n-ary arguments can be expressed, using as the only operator the generalization

 x | y = (min(x, y) + 1) mod n .
In the following we shall use the notation
 suc(x) = (x + 1) mod n .
in terms of which we can rewrite:
 x | y = suc(min(x, y)) .

Theorem 1. The function suc —as defined above— is expressible.

 Proof. suc(x) = x | x

Theorem 2. The function pred —defined by pred(x) = (x - 1) mod n— is expressible.

 Proof. pred(x) = sucn-1(x)

Theorem 3. The function min is expressible.

 Proof. min(x, y) = pred(x | y)
Note. Because
 min(x, y, z) = min(min(x, y), z) etc.
also the minimum of more than two arguments is expressible. (End of note.)

Theorem 4. For any n-ary constant c the discriminator function dc(x),

 given by dc(x) = n - 1 for x = c = 0 for x ≠ c
is expressible.
 Proof. Because sucn-c(x) = 0 for x = c = 0 for x ≠ c
is expressible.
 we have min(1, sucn-c(x)) = 0 for x = c = 1 for x ≠ c ,
so that dc(x) = pred(min(1, sucn-c(x))) .

Theorem 5. For any n-ary constant c the weighten discriminator function wc(x, y), given by

 wc(x, y) = y for x = c = n - 1 for x f c
is expressible.
 Proof. min(dc(x), suc(y)) = suc(y) for x = c = 0 for x ≠ c
and because pred(suc(y)) = y , we find
 wc(x, y) = pred(min(dc(x), suc(y))) .

Theorem 6. The selector function, defined by

 sel(x, y0, y1. ... , yn-1) = yi for x = i
is expressible.
 Proof. sel(x, y0, y1, ... , yn-1) = min(w0(x, y0). w1(x, y1). . wn-1(x, yn_1)) .

The final induction from 2 to k arguments is straightforward.

[1] Shaffer. H.M., A set of five independent postulates for Boolean algebras, with applications to logical constants. Trans.Amer.Math.Soc. vol 14, pp,481-488

Transcribed by Martin P.M. van der Burgt
Last revision 2014-11-15 .