Edsger W. Dijkstra Archive



EWD Index:

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Special characters used in EWD transcriptions

All transcribed EWDs are best viewed in a font which supports the entire Unicode character set.

The following special characters appear in one or more transcribed EWDs.
If you have trouble viewing any of the characters on this page, you may have trouble viewing some transcribed EWDs. But if you can't resolve these problems, remember that the original scanned EWD is always only a click away.

Glyph Escape
Example Use
& & n/a  
" " n/a  
    n/a EWD1313, to space formulae
ô ô small letter o with circumflex rôle
λ λ Greek small letter lambda EWD1142
– -- (En dash)
— --- (Em Dash) EWD1313
ö ö n/a EWD1316
• bullet EWD1142
− minus sign
∙ small bullet (multiply)
◦ functional composition EWD692
□ white square EWD1142
▯ "fat bar" (used between guarded commands) EWD764
≠ differs from (not equal)
≡ {equivales} EWD1313
⇒ {implies} EWD1313
⇐ {follows from}
⇔ left right double arrow
∧ {and} EWD1313
∨ {or} EWD1313
¬ ¬ {not} EWD804
∀ {for all}
∃ {there exists}
∈ {element of }
∉ {not an element of }
× × {times} EWD1214
← {left arrow} EWD1255
↑ {up arrow}
→ {right arrow} EWD1216
↓ {down arrow} EWD1313, representing the GCD and later the minimum
≤ {at most} EWD1313
≥ {at least}  
⊑ {square at most} EWD1313, representing "divides"
⊒ {square at least}  
〈 left angle bracket EWD1142
〉 right angle bracket EWD1142
√ square root EWD923A

You can find other characters in the Unicode charts; most of the mathematical characters are here.

Revised Tue, 14 Nov 2006