Factors that Affect the Evolution of Complex Cooperative Behavior (2019)
Author: Padmini Rajagopalan
In real life, spotted hyenas sometimes team up to attack lions in a coordinated fashion to drive them away from a kill. This mobbing behavior is much more complex than the hyenas’ usual cooperative behaviors.

In this video's 100x100 simulated toroidal grid world, the orange sphere is a lion agent and the green cubes are ten hyena agents. Since the simulation environment is toroidal, agents that exit from the left immediately enter from the right, and vice-versa. Similarly, agents that exit from the bottom reenter from the top and vice-versa.

The video demonstrates a case of successful mobbing, where the lion is driven away from the kill site. In simulation, we can discover hyena behaviors that form stepping stones that make it possible to eventually evolve mobbing.