Simulated Robot Soccer
RoboCup soccer also has a couple of simulation platforms that are very useful for studying full-team interactions and multiagent learning. The keepaway domain is a subtask that we have defined and that has become a standard reinforcement learning benchmark.
Peter Stone Faculty pstone [at] cs utexas edu
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Keyframe Sampling, Optimization, and Behavior Integration: Towards Long-Distance Kicking in the RoboCup 3D Simulation League 2015
Mike Depinet, Patrick MacAlpine, and Peter Stone, In {R}obo{C}up-2014: Robot Soccer World Cup {XVIII}, H. Levent Akin and Reinaldo A. C. Bianchi and Subramanian Ramamoorthy and Komei Sugiura (Eds.) 2015. Springer Verlag.
The RoboCup 2013 Drop-In Player Challenges: A Testbed for Ad Hoc Teamwork 2014
Patrick MacAlpine, Katie Genter, Samuel Barrett, and Peter Stone, In AAMAS Autonomous Robots and Multirobot Systems Workshop (ARMS 2014), May 2014. Accompanying videos at
The RoboCup 2013 Drop-In Player Challenges: Experiments in Ad Hoc Teamwork 2014
Patrick MacAlpine, Katie Genter, Samuel Barrett, and Peter Stone,
SCRAM: Scalable Collision-avoiding Role Assignment with Minimal-makespan for Formational Positioning 2014
Patrick MacAlpine, Eric Price, and Peter Stone, In Proc. of 13th Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS), May 2014. Accompanying videos at
Humanoid Robots Learning to Walk Faster: From the Real World to Simulation and Back 2013
Alon Farchy, Samuel Barrett, Patrick MacAlpine, and Peter Stone, In Proc. of 12th Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS), May 2013.
Positioning to Win: A Dynamic Role Assignment and Formation Positioning System 2013
Patrick MacAlpine, Francisco Barrera, and Peter Stone, In {R}obo{C}up-2012: Robot Soccer World Cup {XVI} 2013.
Simultaneous Learning and Reshaping of an Approximated Optimization Task 2013
Patrick MacAlpine, Elad Liebman, and Peter Stone, In AAMAS Adaptive Learning Agents (ALA) Workshop, May 2013.
The 2012 {UT Austin Villa} Code Release 2013
Samuel Barrett, Katie Genter, Yuchen He, Todd Hester, Piyush Khandelwal, Jacob Menashe, and Peter Stone, In {R}obo{C}up-2013: Robot Soccer World Cup {XVII} 2013.
UT Austin Villa: RoboCup 2012 3D Simulation League Champion 2013
Patrick MacAlpine, Nick Collins, Adrian Lopez-Mobilia, and Peter Stone, In {R}obo{C}up-2012: Robot Soccer World Cup {XVI}, Xiaoping Chen and Peter Stone and Luis Enrique Sucar and Tijn Van der Zant (Eds.) 2013. Springer Verlag.
Design and Optimization of an Omnidirectional Humanoid Walk: A Winning Approach at the RoboCup 2011 3D Simulation Competition 2012
Patrick MacAlpine, Samuel Barrett, Daniel Urieli, Victor Vu, and Peter Stone, In Twenty-Sixth Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI'12), July 2012.
Using Dynamic Rewards to Learn a Fully Holonomic Bipedal Walk 2012
Patrick MacAlpine and Peter Stone, In AAMAS Adaptive Learning Agents (ALA) Workshop, June 2012.
UT Austin Villa 2011: A Champion Agent in the RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Competition 2012
Patrick MacAlpine, Daniel Urieli, Samuel Barrett, Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Francisco Barrera, Adrian Lopez-Mobilia, Nicolae Stiurca, Victor Vu, and Peter Stone, In Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS'12), June 2012.
Wright Eagle and UT Austin Villa: RoboCup 2011 Simulation League Champions 2012
Aijun Bai, Xiaoping Chen, Patrick MacAlpine, Daniel Urieli, Samuel Barrett, and Peter Stone, In {R}obo{C}up-2011: Robot Soccer World Cup {XV} 2012.
On Optimizing Interdependent Skills: A Case Study in Simulated 3D Humanoid Robot Soccer 2011
Daniel Urieli, Patrick MacAlpine, Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Yinon Bentor, and Peter Stone, In Proc. of 10th Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS'11), May 2011.
UT Austin Villa 2011 3D Simulation Team Report 2011
Patrick MacAlpine, Daniel Urieli, Samuel Barrett, Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Francisco Barrera, Adrian Lopez-Mobilia, Nicolae Stiurca, Victor Vu, and Peter Stone, Technical Report, Department of Computer Science, The University of Texas at Austin.
Learning in Fractured Problems for Constructive Neural Network Algorithms 2009
Nate Kohl, PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Texas at Austin.
The UT Austin Villa 3D Simulation Soccer Team 2008 2009
Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Yinon Bentor, and Peter Stone, Technical Report AI09-01, The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences, AI Laboratory.
Three Humanoid Soccer Platforms: Comparison and Synthesis 2009
Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Todd Hester, Michael Quinlan, Yinon Bentor, and Peter Stone, In Proceedings of the RoboCup International Symposium 2009 2009. Springer Verlag.
Model-based Reinforcement Learning in a Complex Domain 2008
Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Peter Stone, and Yaxin Liu, In RoboCup-2007: Robot Soccer World Cup XI, Ubbo Visser and Fernando Ribeiro and Takeshi Ohashi and Frank Dellaert (Eds.), Vol. 5001, pp. 171-83, Berlin 2008. Springer Verlag.
Batch Reinforcement Learning in a Complex Domain 2007
Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan and Peter Stone, In The Sixth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 650-657, New York, NY, USA, May 2007. ACM.
Empirical Studies in Action Selection for Reinforcement Learning 2007
Shimon Whiteson, Matthew E. Taylor, and Peter Stone, Adaptive Behavior, Vol. 15, 1 (2007), pp. 33-50.
Half Field Offense in RoboCup Soccer: A Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Case Study 2007
Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Yaxin Liu, and Peter Stone, In RoboCup-2006: Robot Soccer World Cup X, Gerhard Lakemeyer and Elizabeth Sklar and Domenico Sorenti and Tomoichi Takahashi (Eds.), Vol. 4434, pp. 72-85, Berlin 2007. Springer Verlag.
The UT Austin Villa 3D Simulation Soccer Team 2007 2007
Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan and Peter Stone, Technical Report AI-07-348, The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences, AI Laboratory.
Comparing Evolutionary and Temporal Difference Methods for Reinforcement Learning 2006
Matthew Taylor, Shimon Whiteson, and Peter Stone, In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pp. 1321-28, July 2006.
Keepaway Soccer: From Machine Learning Testbed to Benchmark 2006
Peter Stone, Gregory Kuhlmann, Matthew E. Taylor, and Yaxin Liu, In RoboCup-2005: Robot Soccer World Cup IX, Itsuki Noda and Adam Jacoff and Ansgar Bredenfeld and Yasutake Takahashi (Eds.), Vol. 4020, pp. 93-105, Berlin 2006. Springer Verlag.
Know Thine Enemy: A Champion RoboCup Coach Agent 2006
Gregory Kuhlmann, William B. Knox, and Peter Stone, In Proceedings of the Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 1463-68, July 2006.
Evolving Keepaway Soccer Players through Task Decomposition 2005
Shimon Whiteson, Nate Kohl, Risto Miikkulainen, and Peter Stone, Machine Learning, Vol. 59, 1 (2005), pp. 5-30.
Reinforcement Learning for RoboCup-Soccer Keepaway 2005
Peter Stone, Richard S. Sutton, and Gregory Kuhlmann, Adaptive Behavior, Vol. 13, 3 (2005), pp. 165-188.
The UT Austin Villa 2003 Champion Simulator Coach: A Machine Learning Approach 2005
Gregory Kuhlmann, Peter Stone, and Justin Lallinger, In RoboCup-2004: Robot Soccer World Cup VIII, Daniele Nardi and Martin Riedmiller and Claude Sammut (Eds.), Vol. 3276, pp. 636-644, Berlin 2005. Springer Verlag.
Guiding a Reinforcement Learner with Natural Language Advice: Initial Results in RoboCup Soccer 2004
Gregory Kuhlmann, Peter Stone, Raymond J. Mooney, and Jude W. Shavlik, In The AAAI-2004 Workshop on Supervisory Control of Learning and Adaptive Systems, July 2004.
Concurrent Layered Learning 2003
Shimon Whiteson and Peter Stone, In {AAMAS} 2003: {P}roceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Jeffrey S. Rosenschein and Tuomas Sandholm and Michael Wooldridge and...
The RoboCup Soccer Server and CMUnited Clients: Implemented Infrastructure for MAS Research 2003
Itsuki Noda and Peter Stone, Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Vol. 7, 1--2 (2003), pp. 101-120.
ATTUnited-2001: Using Heterogeneous Players 2002
Peter Stone, In RoboCup-2001: Robot Soccer World Cup V, Andreas Birk and Silvia Coradeschi and Satoshi Tadokoro (Eds.), Vol. 2377, pp. 495-98, Berlin 2002. Springer Verlag.
An Architecture for Action Selection in Robotic Soccer 2001
Peter Stone and David McAllester, In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Elisabeth Andre and Sandip Sen and Claude Frasson and Jörg P. Müller (Eds.), pp. 316-323, New York, NY 2001. ACM Pres...
ATT-CMUnited-2000: Third Place Finisher in the RoboCup-2000 Simulator League 2001
Patrick Riley, Peter Stone, David McAllester, and Manuela Veloso, In RoboCup-2000: Robot Soccer World Cup IV, P. Stone and T. Balch and G. Kraetzschmar (Eds.), Vol. 2019, Berlin 2001. Springer Verlag.
Keeping the Ball from CMUnited-99 2001
David McAllester and Peter Stone, In RoboCup-2000: Robot Soccer World Cup IV, Peter Stone and Tucker Balch and Gerhard Kraetzschmar (Eds.), Vol. 2019, pp. 333-338, Berlin 2001. Springer Verlag.
Layered Disclosure: Revealing Agents' Internals 2001
Patrick Riley, Peter Stone, and Manuela Veloso, In Intelligent Agents VII. Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages --- 7th.~International Workshop, ATAL-2000, Boston, MA, USA, July 7--9, 2000, Proceedings, C. Castelfranchi and Y. Lesper...
Defining and Using Ideal Teammate and Opponent Models 2000
Peter Stone, Patrick Riley, and Manuela Veloso, In Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence 2000.
The CMUnited-99 Champion Simulator Team 2000
Peter Stone, Patrick Riley, and Manuela Veloso, In RoboCup-99: Robot Soccer World Cup III, M. Veloso and E. Pagello and H. Kitano (Eds.), Vol. 1856, pp. 35-48, Berlin 2000. Springer Verlag.
Anticipation as a Key for Collaboration in a Team of Agents: A Case Study in Robotic Soccer 1999
Manuela Veloso, Peter Stone, and Michael Bowling, In Proceedings of SPIE Sensor Fusion and Decentralized Control in Robotic Systems II, Paul S. Schenker and Gerard T. McKee (Eds.), Vol. 3839, pp. 134-143, Bellingham, WA, September 1999. SPIE.
Task Decomposition, Dynamic Role Assignment, and Low-Bandwidth Communication for Real-Time Strategic Teamwork 1999
Peter Stone and Manuela Veloso, Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 110, 2 (1999), pp. 241-273.
Team-Partitioned, Opaque-Transition Reinforcement Learning 1999
Peter Stone and Manuela Veloso, In RoboCup-98: Robot Soccer World Cup II, Minoru Asada and Hiroaki Kitano (Eds.), Vol. 1604, pp. 261-72, Berlin 1999. Springer Verlag. Also in Proceedings of the Third International Confe...
The CMUnited-98 Champion Simulator Team 1999
Peter Stone, Manuela Veloso, and Patrick Riley, In RoboCup-98: Robot Soccer World Cup II, M. Asada and H. Kitano (Eds.), Vol. 1604, pp. 61-76 1999. Springer Verlag.
A Layered Approach to Learning Client Behaviors in the RoboCup Soccer Server 1998
Peter Stone and Manuela Veloso, Applied Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 12 (1998), pp. 165-188.
The CMUnited-97 Simulator Team 1998
Peter Stone and Manuela Veloso, In RoboCup-97: Robot Soccer World Cup I, Hiroaki Kitano (Eds.), Vol. 1395, pp. 387-397, Berlin 1998. Springer Verlag.
Towards Collaborative and Adversarial Learning: A Case Study in Robotic Soccer 1998
Peter Stone and Manuela Veloso, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 48, 1 (1998), pp. 83-104.
Using Decision Tree Confidence Factors for Multiagent Control 1998
Peter Stone and Manuela Veloso, In RoboCup-97: Robot Soccer World Cup I, Hiroaki Kitano (Eds.), Vol. 1395, pp. 99-111, Berlin 1998. Springer Verlag.
The RoboCup Synthetic Agent Challenge 97 1997
Hiroaki Kitano, Milind Tambe, Peter Stone, Manuela Veloso, Silvia Coradeschi, Eiichi Osawa, Hitoshi Matsubara, Itsuki Noda, and Minoru Asada, In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 24-29, San Francisco, CA 1997. Morgan Kaufmann.
Beating a Defender in Robotic Soccer: Memory-Based Learning of a Continuous Function 1996
Peter Stone and Manuela Veloso, In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 8, David S. Touretzky and Michael C. Mozer and Michael E. Hasselmo (Eds.), pp. 896-902, Cambridge, MA 1996. MIT Press.
Predictive Memory for an Inaccessible Environment 1996
Mike Bowling, Peter Stone, and Manuela Veloso, In Proceedings of the IROS-96 Workshop on RoboCup, pp. 28-34, Osaka, Japan, November 1996.