Major Section: PROGRAMMING
Using the nonnegative integers and lists we can represent the ordinals up to
epsilon-0. The ordinal representation used in ACL2 has changed as
of Version_2.8 from that of Nqthm-1992, courtesy of Pete Manolios and Daron
Vroon; additional discussion may be found in ``Ordinal Arithmetic in ACL2'',
proceedings of ACL2 Workshop 2003,
ACL2's notion of ordinal was very similar to the development given in ``New
Version of the Consistency Proof for Elementary Number Theory'' in The
Collected Papers of Gerhard Gentzen, ed. M.E. Szabo, North-Holland
Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969, pp 132-213.
The following essay is intended to provide intuition about ordinals.
The truth, of course, lies simply in the ACL2 definitions of
Very intuitively, think of each non-zero natural number as by being denoted by a series of the appropriate number of strokes, i.e.,
0 0 1 | 2 || 3 ||| 4 |||| ... ...Then ``
omega,'' here written as
w, is the ordinal that might be written as
w |||||...,i.e., an infinite number of strokes. Addition here is just concatenation. Observe that adding one to the front of
win the picture above produces
wagain, which gives rise to a standard definition of
wis the least ordinal such that adding another stroke at the beginning does not change the ordinal.
We denote by
w*2 the ``
doubly infinite'' sequence that we
might write as follows.
w*2 |||||... |||||...One way to think of
w*2is that it is obtained by replacing each stroke in
w. Thus, one can imagine
w*4, etc., which leads ultimately to the idea of ``
w*w,'' the ordinal obtained by replacing each stroke in
w. This is also written as ``
2 w |||||... |||||... |||||... |||||... |||||... ...We can analogously construct
w^3by replacing each stroke in
w^2(which, it turns out, is the same as replacing each stroke in
w). That is, we can construct
3 2 2 2 2 w w ... w ... w ... w ... ...Then we can construct
w^4, etc., ultimately suggesting
w^w. We can then stack
(w^w)^wetc. Consider the ``limit'' of all of those stacks, which we might display as follows.
. . . w w w w wThat is epsilon-0.
Below we begin listing some ordinals up to
epsilon-0; the reader can
fill in the gaps at his or her leisure. We show in the left column
the conventional notation, using
w as ``
omega,'' and in the right
column the ACL2 object representing the corresponding ordinal.
ordinal ACL2 representationObserve that the sequence of
0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 ... ... w '((1 . 1) . 0) w+1 '((1 . 1) . 1) w+2 '((1 . 1) . 2) ... ... w*2 '((1 . 2) . 0) (w*2)+1 '((1 . 2) . 1) ... ... w*3 '((1 . 3) . 0) (w*3)+1 '((1 . 3) . 1) ... ...
2 w '((2 . 1) . 0) ... ...
2 w +w*4+3 '((2 . 1) (1 . 4) . 3) ... ...
3 w '((3 . 1) . 0) ... ...
w w '((((1 . 1) . 0) . 1) . 0) ... ...
w 99 w +w +w4+3 '((((1 . 1) . 0) . 1) (99 . 1) (1 . 4) . 3) ... ...
2 w w '((((2 . 1) . 0) . 1) . 0)
w w w '((((((1 . 1) . 0) . 1) . 0) . 1) . 0) ... ...
o-ps starts with the natural numbers (which are recognized by
natp). This is convenient because it means that if a term, such as a measure expression for justifying a recursive function (see o<) must produce an
o-p, it suffices for it to produce a natural number.
The ordinals listed above are listed in ascending order. This is
the ordering tested by
epsilon-0 ordinals'' of ACL2 are recognized by the recursively
o-p. The base case of the recursion tells us that
natural numbers are
epsilon-0 ordinals. Otherwise, an
ordinal is a list of
cons pairs whose final
cdr is a natural
((a1 . x1) (a2 . x2) ... (an . xn) . p). This corresponds to
(w^a1)x1 + (w^a2)x2 + ... + (w^an)xn + p. Each
ai is an
ordinal in the ACL2 representation that is not equal to 0. The sequence of
ai's is strictly decreasing (as defined by
is a positive integer (as recognized by
Note that infinite ordinals should generally be created using the ordinal
make-ord, rather than
cons. The functions
o-rst are ordinals
destructors. Finally, the function
o-finp and the macro
tell whether an ordinal is finite or infinite, respectively.
o< compares two
If both are integers,
(o< x y) is just
x<y. If one is an integer
and the other is a
cons, the integer is the smaller. Otherwise,
o< recursively compares the
o-first-expts of the ordinals to
determine which is smaller. If they are the same, the
of the ordinals are compared. If they are equal, the
o-rsts of the
ordinals are recursively compared.
Fundamental to ACL2 is the fact that
o< is well-founded on
epsilon-0 ordinals. That is, there is no ``infinitely descending
chain'' of such ordinals. See proof-of-well-foundedness.