Major Section: MISCELLANEOUS

Examples of Terms: (cond ((caar x) (cons t x)) (t 0)) ; an untranslated term(if (car (car x)) (cons 't x) '0) ; a translated term

(car (cons x y) 'nil v) ; a pseudo-term

In traditional first-order predicate calculus a ``term'' is a syntactic entity denoting some object in the universe of individuals. Often, for example, the syntactic characterization of a term is that it is either a variable symbol or the application of a function symbol to the appropriate number of argument terms. Traditionally, ``atomic formulas'' are built from terms with predicate symbols such as ``equal'' and ``member;'' ``formulas'' are then built from atomic formulas with propositional ``operators'' like ``not,'' ``and,'' and ``implies.'' Theorems are formulas. Theorems are ``valid'' in the sense that the value of a theorem is true, in any model of the axioms and under all possible assignments of individuals to variables.

However, in ACL2, terms are used in place of both atomic formulas
and formulas. ACL2 does not have predicate symbols or propositional
operators as distinguished syntactic entities. The ACL2 universe of
individuals includes a ``true'' object (denoted by `t`

) and a
``false'' object (denoted by `nil`

), predicates and propositional
operators are functions that return these objects. Theorems in ACL2
are terms and the ``validity'' of a term means that, under no
assignment to the variables does the term evaluate to `nil`

.

We use the word ``term'' in ACL2 in three distinct senses. We will speak of ``translated'' terms, ``untranslated'' terms, and ``pseudo-'' terms.

*Translated Terms: The Strict Sense and Internal Form*

In its most strict sense, a ``term'' is either a legal variable
symbol, a quoted constant, or the application of an n-ary function
symbol or closed `lambda`

expression to a true list of n terms.

The legal variable symbols are symbols other than `t`

or `nil`

which are not in the keyword package, do not start with ampersand,
do not start and end with asterisks, and if in the main Lisp
package, do not violate an appropriate restriction (see name).

Quoted constants are expressions of the form `(quote x)`

, where `x`

is
any ACL2 object. Such expressions may also be written `'x`

.

Closed `lambda`

expressions are expressions of the form
`(lambda (v1 ... vn) body)`

where the `vi`

are distinct legal
variable symbols, `body`

is a term, and the only free variables in
`body`

are among the `vi`

.

The function `termp`

, which takes two arguments, an alleged term `x`

and
a logical world `w`

(see world), recognizes terms of a given
extension of the logic. `Termp`

is defined in `:`

`program`

mode.
Its definition may be inspected with `:`

`pe`

`termp`

for a complete
specification of what we mean by ``term'' in the most strict sense.
Most ACL2 term-processing functions deal with terms in this strict
sense and use `termp`

as a guard. That is, the ``internal form''
of a term satisfies `termp`

, the strict sense of the word ``term.''

*Untranslated Terms: What the User Types*

While terms in the strict sense are easy to explore (because their structure is so regular and simple) they can be cumbersome to type. Thus, ACL2 supports a more sugary syntax that includes uses of macros and constant symbols. Very roughly speaking, macros are functions that produce terms as their results. Constants are symbols that are associated with quoted objects. Terms in this sugary syntax are ``translated'' to terms in the strict sense; the sugary syntax is more often called ``untranslated.'' Roughly speaking, translation just implements macroexpansion, the replacement of constant symbols by their quoted values, and the checking of all the rules governing the strict sense of ``term.''

More precisely, macro symbols are as described in the documentation
for `defmacro`

. A macro, `mac`

, can be thought of as a function,
`mac-fn`

, from ACL2 objects to an ACL2 object to be treated as an
untranslated term. For example, `caar`

is defined as a macro symbol;
the associated macro function maps the object `x`

into the object
`(car (car x))`

. A macro form is a ``call'' of a macro symbol,
i.e., a list whose `car`

is the macro symbol and whose `cdr`

is an
arbitrary true list of objects, used as a term. Macroexpansion is
the process of replacing in an untranslated term every occurrence of
a macro form by the result of applying the macro function to the
appropriate arguments. The ``appropriate'' arguments are determined
by the exact form of the definition of the macro; macros support
positional, keyword, optional and other kinds of arguments.
See defmacro.

In addition to macroexpansion and constant symbol dereferencing,
translation implements the mapping of `let`

and `let*`

forms into
applications of `lambda`

expressions and closes `lambda`

expressions
containing free variables. Thus, the translation of

(let ((x (1+ i))) (cons x k))can be seen as a two-step process that first produces

((lambda (x) (cons x k)) (1+ i))and then

((lambda (x k) (cons x k)) (1+ i) k) .Observe that the body of the

`let`

and of the first `lambda`

expression contains a free `k`

which is finally bound and passed
into the second `lambda`

expression.
Translation also maps `flet`

forms into applications of `lambda`

expressions. See flet.

When we say, of an event-level function such as `defun`

or `defthm`

,
that some argument ``must be a term'' we mean an untranslated term.
The event functions translate their term-like arguments.

To better understand the mapping between untranslated terms and
translated terms it is convenient to use the keyword command `:`

`trans`

to see examples of translations. See trans and also
see trans1.

Finally, we note that the theorem prover prints terms in
untranslated form. But there can be more than one correct untranslated
term corresponding to a given translated term. For example, the
translated term `(if x y 'nil)`

can be untranslated as `(if x y nil)`

and can also be untranslated as `(and x y)`

. The theorem prover
attempts to print an untranslated term that is as helpful to the
user as possible. In particular, consider a term of the form
`(nth k st)`

where `st`

is a single-threaded object
(see stobj) and the `kth`

accessor of `st`

is, say, `kn`

. The
theorem prover typically would expand `(kn st)`

to `(nth k st)`

. If
`k`

is large then it could be difficult for the user to make sense out
of a proof transcript that mentions the expanded term. Fortunately,
the untranslation of `(nth k st)`

would be `(nth *kn* st)`

; here
`*kn*`

would be a constant (see defconst) added by the `defstobj`

event introducing `st`

, defined to have value `k`

. The user can
extend this user-friendly style of printing applications of `nth`

to
stobjs; see add-nth-alias. These remarks about printing
applications of function `nth`

extend naturally to function
`update-nth`

. Moreover, the prover will attempt to treat terms as
stobjs for the above purpose when appropriate. For example, if
function `foo`

has signature `((foo * st) => (mv * * * st))`

, where
`st`

is introduced with `(defstobj st f0 f1)`

, then the term
`(nth '1 (mv-nth '3 (foo x st0)))`

will be printed as
`(nth *f1* (mv-nth 3 (foo x st0)))`

.

*Pseudo-Terms: A Common Guard for Metafunctions*

Because `termp`

is defined in `:`

`program`

mode, it cannot be used
effectively in conjectures to be proved. Furthermore, from the
perspective of merely guarding a term processing function, `termp`

often checks more than is required. Finally, because `termp`

requires the logical world as one of its arguments it is impossible
to use `termp`

as a guard in places where the logical world is not
itself one of the arguments.

For these reasons we support the idea of ``pseudo-terms.'' A
pseudo-term is either a symbol (but not necessarily one having the
syntax of a legal variable symbol), a true list beginning with `quote`

(but not necessarily well-formed), or the ``application of'' a
symbol or pseudo `lambda`

expression to a true list of
pseudo-terms. A pseudo `lambda`

expression is an expression of the
form `(lambda (v1 ... vn) body)`

where the `vi`

are all symbols
and `body`

is a pseudo-term.

Pseudo-terms are recognized by the unary function `pseudo-termp`

. If
`(termp x w)`

is true, then `(pseudo-termp x)`

is true. However, if `x`

fails to be a (strict) term it may nevertheless still be a
pseudo-term. For example, `(car a b)`

is not a term, because `car`

is
applied to the wrong number of arguments, but it is a pseudo-term.

The structures recognized by `pseudo-termp`

can be recursively
explored with the same simplicity that terms can be. In particular,
if `x`

is not a `variablep`

or an `fquotep`

, then `(ffn-symb x)`

is the
function (`symbol`

or `lambda`

expression) and `(fargs x)`

is the list of
argument pseudo-terms. A metafunction (see meta) or clause-processor
(see clause-processor) may use `pseudo-termp`

as the guard.