Major Section: RULE-CLASSES

See rule-classes for a general discussion of rule classes and
how they are used to build rules from formulas. An example
`:`

`corollary`

formula from which a `:equivalence`

rule might be built is
as follows. (We assume that `r-equal`

has been defined.)

Example: (and (booleanp (r-equal x y)) (r-equal x x) (implies (r-equal x y) (r-equal y x)) (implies (and (r-equal x y) (r-equal y z)) (r-equal x z))).Also see defequiv.

General Form: (and (booleanp (equiv x y)) (equiv x x) (implies (equiv x y) (equiv y x)) (implies (and (equiv x y) (equiv y z)) (equiv x z)))except that the order of the conjuncts and terms and the choice of variable symbols is unimportant. The effect of such a rule is to identify

`equiv`

as an equivalence relation. Note that only Boolean
2-place function symbols can be treated as equivalence relations.
See congruence and see refinement for closely related
concepts.The macro form `(defequiv equiv)`

is an abbreviation for a `defthm`

of
rule-class `:equivalence`

that establishes that `equiv`

is an
equivalence relation. It generates the formula shown above.
See defequiv.

When `equiv`

is marked as an equivalence relation, its reflexivity,
symmetry, and transitivity are built into the system in a deeper way
than via `:`

`rewrite`

rules. More importantly, after `equiv`

has been
shown to be an equivalence relation, lemmas about `equiv`

, e.g.,

(implies hyps (equiv lhs rhs)),when stored as

`:`

`rewrite`

rules, cause the system to rewrite certain
occurrences of (instances of) `lhs`

to (instances of) `rhs`

. Roughly
speaking, an occurrence of `lhs`

in the `kth`

argument of some
`fn`

-expression, `(fn ... lhs' ...)`

, can be rewritten to produce
`(fn ... rhs' ...)`

, provided the system ``knows'' that the value
of `fn`

is unaffected by `equiv`

-substitution in the `kth`

argument. Such knowledge is communicated to the system via
``congruence lemmas.''For example, suppose that `r-equal`

is known to be an equivalence
relation. The `:`

`congruence`

lemma

(implies (r-equal s1 s2) (equal (fn s1 n) (fn s2 n)))informs the rewriter that, while rewriting the first argument of

`fn`

-expressions, it is permitted to use `r-equal`

rewrite-rules.
See congruence for details about `:`

`congruence`

lemmas.
Interestingly, congruence lemmas are automatically created when an
equivalence relation is stored, saying that either of the
equivalence relation's arguments may be replaced by an equivalent
argument. That is, if the equivalence relation is `fn`

, we store
congruence rules that state the following fact:
(implies (and (fn x1 y1) (fn x2 y2)) (iff (fn x1 x2) (fn y1 y2)))Another aspect of equivalence relations is that of ``refinement.'' We say

`equiv1`

``refines'' `equiv2`

iff `(equiv1 x y)`

implies
`(equiv2 x y)`

. `:`

`refinement`

rules permit you to establish such
connections between your equivalence relations. The value of
refinements is that if the system is trying to rewrite something
while maintaining `equiv2`

it is permitted to use as a `:`

`rewrite`

rule any refinement of `equiv2`

. Thus, if `equiv1`

is a
refinement of `equiv2`

and there are `equiv1`

rewrite-rules
available, they can be brought to bear while maintaining `equiv2`

.
See refinement.The system initially has knowledge of two equivalence relations,
equality, denoted by the symbol `equal`

, and propositional
equivalence, denoted by `iff`

. `Equal`

is known to be a refinement of
all equivalence relations and to preserve equality across all
arguments of all functions.

Typically there are five steps involved in introducing and using a new equivalence relation, equiv.

(1) Define

`equiv`

,(2) prove the

`:equivalence`

lemma about`equiv`

,(3) prove the

`:`

`congruence`

lemmas that show where`equiv`

can be used to maintain known relations,(4) prove the

`:`

`refinement`

lemmas that relate`equiv`

to known relations other than equal, and(5) develop the theory of conditional

`:`

`rewrite`

rules that drive equiv rewriting.

More will be written about this as we develop the techniques. For now, here is an example that shows how to make use of equivalence relations in rewriting.

Among the theorems proved below is

(defthm insert-sort-is-id (perm (insert-sort x) x))Here

`perm`

is defined as usual with `delete`

and is proved to be an
equivalence relation and to be a congruence relation for `cons`

and
`member`

.Then we prove the lemma

(defthm insert-is-cons (perm (insert a x) (cons a x)))which you must think of as you would

`(insert a x) = (cons a x)`

.Now prove `(perm (insert-sort x) x)`

. The base case is trivial. The
induction step is

(consp x) & (perm (insert-sort (cdr x)) (cdr x)) -> (perm (insert-sort x) x).Opening

`insert-sort`

makes the conclusion be
(perm (insert (car x) (insert-sort (cdr x))) x).Then apply the induction hypothesis (rewriting

`(insert-sort (cdr x))`

to `(cdr x)`

), to make the conclusion be
(perm (insert (car x) (cdr x)) x)Then apply

`insert-is-cons`

to get `(perm (cons (car x) (cdr x)) x)`

.
But we know that `(cons (car x) (cdr x))`

is `x`

, so we get `(perm x x)`

which is trivial, since `perm`

is an equivalence relation.Here are the events.

(encapsulate (((lt * *) => *)) (local (defun lt (x y) (declare (ignore x y)) nil)) (defthm lt-non-symmetric (implies (lt x y) (not (lt y x))))) (defun insert (x lst) (cond ((atom lst) (list x)) ((lt x (car lst)) (cons x lst)) (t (cons (car lst) (insert x (cdr lst)))))) (defun insert-sort (lst) (cond ((atom lst) nil) (t (insert (car lst) (insert-sort (cdr lst)))))) (defun del (x lst) (cond ((atom lst) nil) ((equal x (car lst)) (cdr lst)) (t (cons (car lst) (del x (cdr lst)))))) (defun mem (x lst) (cond ((atom lst) nil) ((equal x (car lst)) t) (t (mem x (cdr lst))))) (defun perm (lst1 lst2) (cond ((atom lst1) (atom lst2)) ((mem (car lst1) lst2) (perm (cdr lst1) (del (car lst1) lst2))) (t nil))) (defthm perm-reflexive (perm x x)) (defthm perm-cons (implies (mem a x) (equal (perm x (cons a y)) (perm (del a x) y))) :hints (("Goal" :induct (perm x y)))) (defthm perm-symmetric (implies (perm x y) (perm y x))) (defthm mem-del (implies (mem a (del b x)) (mem a x))) (defthm perm-mem (implies (and (perm x y) (mem a x)) (mem a y))) (defthm mem-del2 (implies (and (mem a x) (not (equal a b))) (mem a (del b x)))) (defthm comm-del (equal (del a (del b x)) (del b (del a x)))) (defthm perm-del (implies (perm x y) (perm (del a x) (del a y)))) (defthm perm-transitive (implies (and (perm x y) (perm y z)) (perm x z))) (defequiv perm) (in-theory (disable perm perm-reflexive perm-symmetric perm-transitive)) (defcong perm perm (cons x y) 2) (defcong perm iff (mem x y) 2) (defthm atom-perm (implies (not (consp x)) (perm x nil)) :rule-classes :forward-chaining :hints (("Goal" :in-theory (enable perm)))) (defthm insert-is-cons (perm (insert a x) (cons a x))) (defthm insert-sort-is-id (perm (insert-sort x) x)) (defun app (x y) (if (consp x) (cons (car x) (app (cdr x) y)) y)) (defun rev (x) (if (consp x) (app (rev (cdr x)) (list (car x))) nil)) (defcong perm perm (app x y) 2) (defthm app-cons (perm (app a (cons b c)) (cons b (app a c)))) (defthm app-commutes (perm (app a b) (app b a))) (defcong perm perm (app x y) 1 :hints (("Goal" :induct (app y x)))) (defthm rev-is-id (perm (rev x) x)) (defun == (x y) (if (consp x) (if (consp y) (and (equal (car x) (car y)) (== (cdr x) (cdr y))) nil) (not (consp y)))) (defthm ==-reflexive (== x x)) (defthm ==-symmetric (implies (== x y) (== y x))) (defequiv ==) (in-theory (disable ==-symmetric ==-reflexive)) (defcong == == (cons x y) 2) (defcong == iff (consp x) 1) (defcong == == (app x y) 2) (defcong == == (app x y) 1) (defthm rev-rev (== (rev (rev x)) x))