Major Section: RULE-CLASSES

Example: (:induction :corollary t ; the theorem proved is irrelevant! :pattern (* 1/2 i) :condition (and (integerp i) (>= i 0)) :scheme (recursion-by-sub2 i))

In ACL2, as in Nqthm, the functions in a conjecture ``suggest'' the inductions considered by the system. Because every recursive function must be admitted with a justification in terms of a measure that decreases in a well-founded way on a given set of ``controlling'' arguments, every recursive function suggests a dual induction scheme that ``unwinds'' the function from a given application.

For example, since `append`

(actually `binary-append`

, but we'll ignore
the distinction here) decomposes its first argument by successive
`cdr`

s as long as it is a non-`nil`

true list, the induction scheme
suggested by `(append x y)`

has a base case supposing `x`

to be either
not a true list or to be `nil`

and then has an induction step in which
the induction hypothesis is obtained by replacing `x`

by `(cdr x)`

.
This substitution decreases the same measure used to justify the
definition of `append`

. Observe that an induction scheme is suggested
by a recursive function application only if the controlling actuals
are distinct variables, a condition that is sufficient to ensure
that the ``substitution'' used to create the induction hypothesis is
indeed a substitution and that it drives down a certain measure. In
particular, `(append (foo x) y)`

does not suggest an induction
unwinding `append`

because the induction scheme suggested by
`(append x y)`

requires that we substitute `(cdr x)`

for `x`

and
we cannot do that if `x`

is not a variable symbol.

Once ACL2 has collected together all the suggested induction schemes it massages them in various ways, combining some to simultaneously unwind certain cliques of functions and vetoing others because they ``flaw'' others. We do not further discuss the induction heuristics here; the interested reader should see Chapter XIV of A Computational Logic (Boyer and Moore, Academic Press, 1979) which represents a fairly complete description of the induction heuristics of ACL2.

However, unlike Nqthm, ACL2 provides a means by which the user can
elaborate the rules under which function applications suggest
induction schemes. Such rules are called `:induction`

rules. The
definitional principle automatically creates an `:induction`

rule,
named `(:induction fn)`

, for each admitted recursive function, `fn`

. It
is this rule that links applications of `fn`

to the induction scheme
it suggests. Disabling `(:induction fn)`

will prevent `fn`

from
suggesting the induction scheme derived from its recursive
definition. It is possible for the user to create additional
`:induction`

rules by using the `:induction`

rule class in `defthm`

.

Technically we are ``overloading'' `defthm`

by using it in the
creation of `:induction`

rules because no theorem need be proved to
set up the heuristic link represented by an `:induction`

rule.
However, since `defthm`

is generally used to create rules and
rule-class objects are generally used to specify the exact form of
each rule, we maintain that convention and introduce the notion of
an `:induction`

rule. An `:induction`

rule can be created from any
lemma whatsoever.

General Form of an :induction Lemma or Corollary: T General Form of an :induction rule-class: (:induction :pattern pat-term :condition cond-term :scheme scheme-term)where

`pat-term`

, `cond-term`

, and `scheme-term`

are all terms, `pat-term`

is the application of a function symbol, `fn`

, `scheme-term`

is the
application of a function symbol, `rec-fn`

, that suggests an
induction, and, finally, every free variable of `cond-term`

and
`scheme-term`

is a free variable of `pat-term`

. We actually check that
`rec-fn`

is either recursively defined -- so that it suggests the
induction that is intrinsic to its recursion -- or else that another
`:induction`

rule has been proved linking a call of `rec-fn`

as the
`:pattern`

to some scheme.The induction rule created is used as follows. When an instance of
the `:pattern`

term occurs in a conjecture to be proved by induction
and the corresponding instance of the `:condition`

term is known to be
non-`nil`

(by type reasoning alone), the corresponding instance of the
`:scheme`

term is created and the rule ``suggests'' the induction, if
any, suggested by that term. (Analysis of that term may further involve
induction rules, though the applied rule is removed from consideration during
that further analysis, in order to avoid looping.) If `rec-fn`

is
recursive, then the suggestion is the one that unwinds that recursion.

Consider, for example, the example given above,

(:induction :pattern (* 1/2 i) :condition (and (integerp i) (>= i 0)) :scheme (recursion-by-sub2 i)).In this example, we imagine that

`recursion-by-sub2`

is the
function:
(defun recursion-by-sub2 (i) (if (and (integerp i) (< 1 i)) (recursion-by-sub2 (- i 2)) t))Observe that this function recursively decomposes its integer argument by subtracting

`2`

from it repeatedly and stops when the
argument is `1`

or less. The value of the function is irrelevant; it
is its induction scheme that concerns us. The induction scheme
suggested by `(recursion-by-sub2 i)`

is
(and (implies (not (and (integerp i) (< 1 i))) ; base case (:p i)) (implies (and (and (integerp i) (< 1 i)) ; induction step (:p (- i 2))) (:p i)))We can think of the base case as covering two situations. The first is when

`i`

is not an integer. The second is when the integer `i`

is `0`

or `1`

. In the base case we must prove `(:p i)`

without further
help. The induction step deals with those integer `i`

greater than `1`

,
and inductively assumes the conjecture for `i-2`

while proving it for
`i`

. Let us call this scheme ``induction on `i`

by twos.''Suppose the above `:induction`

rule has been added. Then an
occurrence of, say, `(* 1/2 k)`

in a conjecture to be proved by
induction would suggest, via this rule, an induction on `k`

by twos,
provided `k`

was known to be a nonnegative integer. This is because
the induction rule's `:pattern`

is matched in the conjecture, its
`:condition`

is satisfied, and the `:scheme`

suggested by the rule is
that derived from `(recursion-by-sub2 k)`

, which is induction on `k`

by
twos. Similarly, the term `(* 1/2 (length l))`

would suggest no
induction via this rule, even though the rule ``fires'' because it
creates the `:scheme`

`(recursion-by-sub2 (length l))`

which suggests no
inductions unwinding `recursion-by-sub2`

(since the controlling
argument of `recursion-by-sub2`

in this `:scheme`

is not a variable
symbol).

Continuing this example one step further illustrates the utility of
`:induction`

rules. We could define the function `recursion-by-cddr`

that suggests the induction scheme decomposing its `consp`

argument
two `cdr`

s at a time. We could then add the `:induction`

rule linking
`(* 1/2 (length x))`

to `(recursion-by-cddr x)`

and arrange for
`(* 1/2 (length l))`

to suggest induction on `l`

by `cddr`

.

Observe that `:induction`

rules require no proofs to be done. Such a
rule is merely a heuristic link between the `:pattern`

term, which may
occur in conjectures to be proved by induction, and the `:scheme`

term, from which an induction scheme may be derived. Hence, when an
`:induction`

rule-class is specified in a `defthm`

event, the theorem
proved is irrelevant. The easiest theorem to prove is, of course,
`t`

. Thus, we suggest that when an `:induction`

rule is to be created,
the following form be used:

(defthm name T :rule-classes ((:induction :pattern pat-term :condition cond-term :scheme scheme-term)))The name of the rule created is

`(:induction name)`

. When that rune
is disabled the heuristic link between `pat-term`

and `scheme-term`

is
broken.