Major Section: ACL2 Documentation
Example: (mv-let (channel state) (open-input-channel "foo.lisp" :object state) (mv-let (eofp obj state) (read-object channel state) (. . (let ((state (close-input-channel channel state))) (mv final-ans state))..)))Also see file-reading-example.
For advanced ways to control printing, see print-control.
For a discussion of formatted printing, see fmt.
To control ACL2 abbreviation (``evisceration'') of objects before printing them, see set-evisc-tuple, see without-evisc, and see set-iprint.
To redirect output to a file, see output-to-file.
ACL2 supports input and output facilities equivalent to a subset of those
found in Common Lisp. ACL2 does not support random access to files or
bidirectional streams. In Common Lisp, input and output are to or from
objects of type
stream. In ACL2, input and output are to or from objects
called ``channels,'' which are actually symbols. Although a channel is a
symbol, one may think of it intuitively as corresponding to a Common Lisp
stream. Channels are in one of two ACL2 packages,
"ACL2-OUTPUT-CHANNEL". When one ``opens'' a file one gets back a
symbol-name is the file name passed to ``open,''
n is a counter that is incremented every
time an open or close occurs.
There are three channels which are open from the beginning and which cannot be closed:
acl2-input-channel::standard-character-input-0 acl2-input-channel::standard-object-input-0 acl2-input-channel::standard-character-output-0All three of these are really Common Lisp's
For convenience, three global variables are bound to these rather tedious channel names:
*standard-ci* *standard-oi* *standard-co*Common Lisp permits one to open a stream for several different kinds of
io, e.g. character or byte. ACL2 permits an additional type called ``object''. In ACL2 an ``io-type'' is a keyword, either
:object. When one opens a file, one specifies a type, which determines the kind of io operations that can be done on the channel returned. The types
:byteare familiar. Type
:objectis an abstraction not found in Common Lisp. An
:objectfile is a file of Lisp objects. One uses
read-objectto read from
print-object$-ser) to print to
:objectfiles. (The reading and printing are really done with the Common Lisp
read, we note that the
nil.) The function
read-object-suppressis logically the same as
read-object-suppressthrows away the second returned value, i.e. the value that would normally be read, simply returning
(mv eof state); under the hood,
read-object-suppressavoids errors, for example those caused by encountering symbols in packages unknown to ACL2.
File-names are strings. ACL2 does not support the Common Lisp type
pathname. However, for the
file-name argument of the
output-related functions listed below, ACL2 supports a special value,
:STRING. For this value, the channel connects (by way of a Common Lisp
output string stream) to a string rather than to a file: as characters are
written to the channel they can be retrieved by using
Here are the names, formals and output descriptions of the ACL2 io functions.
Input Functions: (open-input-channel (file-name io-type state) (mv channel state)) (open-input-channel-p (channel io-type state) boolean) (close-input-channel (channel state) state) (read-char$ (channel state) (mv char/nil state)) ; nil for EOF (peek-char$ (channel state) boolean) (read-byte$ (channel state) (mv byte/nil state)) ; nil for EOF (read-object (channel state) (mv eof-read-flg obj-read state)) (read-object-suppress (channel state) (mv eof-read-flg state)) Output Functions: (open-output-channel (file-name io-type state) (mv channel state)) (open-output-channel! (file-name io-type state) (mv channel state)) (open-output-channel-p (channel io-type state) boolean) (close-output-channel (channel state) state) (princ$ (obj channel state) state) (write-byte$ (byte channel state) state) (print-object$ (obj channel state) state) (print-object$-ser (obj serialize-character channel state) state) (fms (string alist channel state evisc-tuple) state) (fms! (string alist channel state evisc-tuple) state) (fmt (string alist channel state evisc-tuple) (mv col state)) (fmt! (string alist channel state evisc-tuple) (mv col state)) (fmt1 (string alist col channel state evisc-tuple) (mv col state)) (fmt1! (string alist col channel state evisc-tuple) (mv col state)) (cw (string arg0 arg1 ... argn) nil) (get-output-stream-string$ (channel state &optional (close-p 't) (ctx ''get-output-stream-string$)) (mv erp string state))The ``formatting'' functions are particularly useful; see fmt and see cw. In particular,
cwprints to a ``comment window'' and does not involve the ACL2
state, so many may find it easier to use than
fmtand its variants. The functions
fmt1!are the same as their respective functions without the ``
!,'' except that the ``
!'' functions are guaranteed to print forms that can be read back in (at a slight readability cost).
When one enters ACL2 with
(lp), input and output are taken from
*standard-co*. Because these are synonyms for
*standard-output*, one can drive ACL2 io off of
arbitrary Common Lisp streams, bound to
*standard-output* before entry to ACL2.
get-output-stream-string$ returns the string accumulated into
the given channel. By default, a call of this macro closes the supplied
output channel. However, a third argument is optional (default
if it evaluates to
nil then the channel remains open. The fourth
argument is an optional context, which generally evaluates to a symbol, for
error reporting. The following example illustrates.
ACL2 !> (mv-let (channel state) (open-output-channel :string :object state) (pprogn (print-object$-ser 17 nil channel state) (print-object$-ser '(a b (c d)) nil channel state) (er-let* ((str1 (get-output-stream-string$ channel state nil))) ; keep the channel open (pprogn (print-object$-ser 23 nil channel state) (print-object$-ser '((e f)) nil channel state) (er-let* ; close the channel ((str2 (get-output-stream-string$ channel state))) (value (cons str1 str2))))))) (" 17 (A B (C D))" . " 23 ((E F))") ACL2 !>Also see printing-to-strings for a discussion of formatted printing functions such as
fmt-to-stringthat do not take a channel or
stateargument and return a string.
By default, symbols are printed in upper case when vertical bars are not required, as specified by Common Lisp. See set-print-case for how to get ACL2 to print symbols in lower case.
By default, numbers are printed in radix 10 (base 10). See set-print-base for how to get ACL2 to print numbers in radix 2, 8, or 16.
To see the guard of an IO function, or indeed any function, see args or
call the function
guard; but some built-in functions (including some IO
functions) will print the result using the variable
that is logically correct, if you want to execute the guard then you should
replace that variable by
STATE and also replace each built-in function
symbol of the form
xxx-p1 by corresponding function symbol
Consider the following example.
ACL2 !>:args princ$ Function PRINC$ Formals: (X CHANNEL STATE-STATE) Signature: (PRINC$ * * STATE) => STATE Guard: (AND (OR (ACL2-NUMBERP X) (CHARACTERP X) (STRINGP X) (SYMBOLP X)) (STATE-P1 STATE-STATE) (SYMBOLP CHANNEL) (OPEN-OUTPUT-CHANNEL-P1 CHANNEL :CHARACTER STATE-STATE)) Guards Verified: T Defun-Mode: :logic Type: (CONSP (PRINC$ X CHANNEL STATE-STATE)) Documentation available via :DOC PRINC$ ACL2 !>(untranslate (guard 'princ$ nil (w state)) t (w state)) (AND (OR (ACL2-NUMBERP X) (CHARACTERP X) (STRINGP X) (SYMBOLP X)) (STATE-P1 STATE-STATE) (SYMBOLP CHANNEL) (OPEN-OUTPUT-CHANNEL-P1 CHANNEL :CHARACTER STATE-STATE)) ACL2 !>If you want to execute the guard for
princ$, then according to the suggestion above, you should consider the guard for
(princ$ x channel state)to be as follows.
(AND (OR (ACL2-NUMBERP X) (CHARACTERP X) (STRINGP X) (SYMBOLP X)) (STATE-P STATE) (SYMBOLP CHANNEL) (OPEN-OUTPUT-CHANNEL-P CHANNEL :CHARACTER STATE))For example, we can check the guard for a given value and channel as follows.
ACL2 !>(let ((x 3) (channel *standard-co*)) (AND (OR (ACL2-NUMBERP X) (CHARACTERP X) (STRINGP X) (SYMBOLP X)) (STATE-P STATE) (SYMBOLP CHANNEL) (OPEN-OUTPUT-CHANNEL-P CHANNEL :CHARACTER STATE))) T ACL2 !>
Comment for advanced users: Function
open-output-channel! is identical
as a function to
open-output-channel, except that the former may be
called even during
make-event expansion and
hints, but requires that there is an active trust tag (see defttag).
Finally, we note that the community book
useful file io functions whose definitions illustrate some of the features