**Due:** Friday, July 3, 2015 by midnight

**Deliverables:** You will be submitting your code electronically.
Make sure that you clearly identify the members of your team (one or
two people).

Your assignment is to implement AES-256, meaning the AES algorithm with 256-bit keys.

*Make sure that all members of your team understand the code and
contribute equally, as much as possible, to its development.*

Below are the specific instructions for this assignment.

- Please provide a README.txt file including your program timing
information, along with the usual stuff.

- The primary file name for this assignment is
`AES.java`. The main method must exist in`AES.java`. Students can add more files as they wish but all files must be submitted.

- The assignment must be compiled by
`javac *.java`.

- The assignment must be executed by the following command:
java AES option keyFile inputFile

where`keyFile`is a key file,`inputFile`(no extension) names a file containing lines of plaintext, and option is "e" or "d" for encryption and decryption, respectively.`keyFile`contains a single line of 64 hex characters, which represents a 256-bit key. The`inputFile`should have 32 hex characters per line. (However, see the procedures below for malformed or short lines.)

- If option "e" is given,
`inputFile`is encrypted with the key from`keyFile`and the program outputs an encrypted file named by adding extension ".enc" to the`inputFile`. If option "d" is given,`inputFile`is decrypted with a key from`keyFile`and the program outputs an encrypted file named by adding an extension ".dec" to the`inputFile`. Please be sure that your encrypted file matches follows the same input format and your decrypted file must match your original plain text (modulo dealing with any malformed or short lines).As an example, if you run:

java AES e key plaintext

The output should be in file`plaintext.enc`.If you then run:

java AES d key plaintext.enc

The output would be in`plaintext.enc.dec`, and should match the original`plaintext`input file. Also,`plaintext.enc`must follow AES standards specified in the assignment page.

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a very important commercial block cipher algorithm, designed to replace the earlier DES.

AES uses repeat cycles or ``rounds.'' There are 10, 12, or 14 rounds for keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits, respectively. The input text is represented as a 4 x 4 array of bytes. The key is represented as a 4 x n array of bytes, where n depends on the key size.

Each round of the algorithm consists of four steps:

**subBytes:**for each byte in the array, use its value as an index into a fixed 256-element lookup table, and replace its value in the state by the byte value stored at that location in the table. You can find the table and the inverse table on the web.**shiftRows:**Let Ri denote the ith row in state. Shift R0 in the state left 0 bytes (i.e., no change); shift R1 left 1 byte; shift R2 left 2 bytes; shift R3 left 3 bytes. These are circular shifts. They do not affect the individual byte values themselves.**mixColumns:**for each column of the state, replace the column by its value multiplied by a fixed 4 x 4 matrix of integers (in a particular Galois Field). This is the most complex step. Find details at any of several websites. Note that the inverse operation multiplies by a different matrix.**addRoundkey:**XOR the state with a 128-bit round key derived from the original key K by a recursive process.

There is a tremendous amount of information on the web about the AES
algorithm. You can find it by searching for "Rijndael" or "Advanced
Encryption Standard" on the web. The AES standard is here:
AES standard. Any questions about the algorithm can be resolved
by looking there. There is also a book, __The Design of Rijndael__
by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen that describes the algorithm in
detail. One student found the following website particularly helpful
in understanding AES. AES-128
**Note that the animation is for AES-128; AES-192 and AES-256 have
some differences.**

Another student found the following two sites helpful: info on Key Schedule and info on mixColumns.

In past semesters, a significant number of folks have had problems with the key expansion algorithm. The algorithm is different depending on the key size. Apparently the Wikipedia page on AES has a pretty good description of the key generation. (However, one semester as a prank one of the students in the class changed one value in the S-box on Wikipedia and caused a lot of grief to other students.) Here is the description from the Rijndael book on key expansion: Key Expansion. Note that the algorithm for 256-bit key expansion is the one on page 46. The one for 128-bit key expansion is on page 45.

Use Electronic Code Book (ECB) mode. That is, encode each block separately, without chaining blocks together.

**Note:** mixColumns is by far the most difficult step of this
algorithm. If you can't figure out how to do it, ask me and I'll give
you my mixColumns code without penalty.

There are implementations of AES on the web and a reference
implementation in the back of the Daemen/Rijmen book. *Don't use
them. You are expected to code your own implementation. Also, do not
consider using a friend's implementation from a previous semester.
The TA has all of those and will check that you have not used an old
submission. It's far better for your grade if you skip this assignment
rather than to be caught cheating.*

After you have completed your coding of the algorithm, turn off all unnecessary IO, and encrypt a large file. That file should be a series of lines, each containing a single 128-bit number in hex format. That is, you do not have to worry about encrypting an ASCII file or other file type. I'm less concerned that you can do that, than that you have the algorithm correct.

Just to be clear, your input file might start with the following lines:

0A935D11496532BC1004865ABDCA4295 00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF ....You'll read in a line, converting from Hex to binary for storage into your state array. Apply the AES algorithm to encrypt the string as stored, and write out the ciphertext in Hex notation to the output file. When decrypting you'll reverse the process. If any line contains non-Hex characters, skip that line. You do not have to generate any output for malformed input. If any line is less than 32 Hex characters (128-bits) pad on the right with zeros. If the line is longer than 32 Hex characters, only consider the first 32. Treat the padded/truncated line as the input; you don't need to reflect in the output that you padded or truncated the line. Your program should be able to deal with uppercase, lowercase or mixed input.

The key is stored in a separate file, but in the same format. For example, for a 256-bit case, your key file might have the following single line (correspondingly shorter for the 128-bit and 192-bit case):

FFEEDDCCBBAA00998877665544332211FFEEDDCCBBAA00998877665544332211

Your program should be able to do each of the following, in accordance with the option command line argument:

- read in the file of Hex lines and output the corresponding ciphertext in Hex;
- read in an encrypted file and output the corresponding plaintext.

The following is a simple Python program to generate 100 input test vectors: Test Vector Generator. However, it won't generate ill-formed test vectors, except that some may be short if there are leading zeros. Modify the call statement to generate more vectors or vectors of length other than 32 hex digits.

*Don't get stumped by the mix-columns step. Try to understand how
it works, but if you just can't figure it out, ask me for the
code. You won't be penalized.*

- Modify your program so that it can run any of AES-128, AES-192 or
AES-256. Your program should take an additional flag as input to say
which mode to run in. Note that the key expansion algorithm is
slightly different in these cases.
- Instrument your program to run in either of CBC or ECB mode.

- Provide a README.txt file including the string "Extra Credit".

- Your extra credit assignment should be executed as follows.
java AES option [length] [mode] keyFile inputFile

where option is "e" or "d"; length is "-length 128" for 128 bits, length is "-length 192" for 192 bits or "-length 256" for 256 bits; mode is "-mode ecb" for ECB mode or "-mode cbc" for CBC mode;`keyFile`is a key file containing a key of the appropriate length; and`inputFile`is an input file to encrypt or decrypt depending on`option`.

- The default length and mode are 128 and ECB if they are not given.

**Make sure that you are getting the correct intermediate values of
the array. It's easy to write an algorithm that inverts, but is not
AES. It's not enough that you get the original input if you
encrypt and then decrypt.**

The Plaintext is: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 The CipherKey is: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 The expanded key is: 00000000 62626262 9BF99BF9 9069F20B EE87757E 7FF88DF3 EC14996A 2135ACC6 0E3B9751 B18A1D4C B43E236F 00000000 63636363 98FB98FB 976CF40F 066A9E91 2E44DA4B 6125FFB4 7550AF1B F9A9061D D47D7B66 EF92E98F 00000000 63636363 98FB98FB 34CF57AC DA1542EE 2B3E7C92 4B75099B 17626BF0 03610AFA D8B9B349 5BE25118 00000000 63636363 C9AAC9AA 50FA3399 7B81B22B 8809BB90 858C37A7 870B3C9B 3338049F E2DADE41 CB11CF8E After addRoundKey(0): 00000000000000000000000000000000 After subBytes: 63636363636363636363636363636363 After shiftRows: 63636363636363636363636363636363 After mixColumns: 63636363636363636363636363636363 After addRoundKey(1): 01000000010000000100000001000000 After subBytes: 7C6363637C6363637C6363637C636363 After shiftRows: 7C6363637C6363637C6363637C636363 After mixColumns: 5D7C7C425D7C7C425D7C7C425D7C7C42 After addRoundKey(2): C6E4E48BA48787E8C6E4E48BA48787E8 After subBytes: B469693D4917179BB469693D4917179B After shiftRows: B417699B4969173DB417699B4969173D After mixColumns: B8BAC794039F49DFB8BAC794039F49DF After addRoundKey(3): 282DF3C46AF386254A4E90A70890E546 After subBytes: 34D80D1C020D443FD62F605C3060D95A After shiftRows: 340D605A022FD91CD6600D3F30D8445C After mixColumns: 45D41785B030A0C8253EED720B0B8474 After addRoundKey(4): ABD2CDFE375AB54950A0AFC0759A6A5F After subBytes: 62B5BDBB9ABED53B53E079BA9DB802CF After shiftRows: 62BE79CF9AE002BB53B8BD3B9DB5D5BA After mixColumns: AB4164E4ADFCA83AF3DFC7868A324CB3 After addRoundKey(5): D46F4F6C55B896337E05BB3D7979DE23 After subBytes: 48A88450FC6C90C3F36BEA27B6B61D26 After shiftRows: 486CEA26FC6B1D50F3B684C3B6A89027 After mixColumns: E8938112135D5DC97BD008A123714CB7 After addRoundKey(6): 04F2CA9707782845E22F019649C5D710 After subBytes: F2897488C5BC346E98157C903BA60ECA After shiftRows: F2BC7CCAC5150E8898A6746E3B893490 After mixColumns: 96DFF34228754F44C03D64BD52FE71CB After addRoundKey(7): B7AAE4C51D252D4F6C920F8194E58150 After subBytes: A9AC69A6A43FD884504F760C22D90C53 After shiftRows: A93F7653A44F0CA650D9698422ACD80C After mixColumns: 2D1E8F0F288802E33DC6CC537F1E310A After addRoundKey(8): 23E78C3C132163DBAAC0C6572E03CB95 After subBytes: 269464EB7DFDFBB9ACBAB45B317B1F2A After shiftRows: 26FDB42A7DBA1FEBAC7B64B93194FB5B After mixColumns: CE2AD677DBD8DFEF134FCF99654FA58A After addRoundKey(9): 7FFE0E9551A566350E347C472929ECCB After subBytes: D2BBAB2AD1063396AB1810A0A5A5CE1F After shiftRows: D206101FD118CE2AABA5AB96A5BB33A0 After addRoundKey(10): 66E94BD4EF8A2C3B884CFA59CA342B2E The ciphertext: 66 EF 88 CA E9 8A 4C 34 4B 2C FA 2B D4 3B 59 2E The Decryption (fixed from the earlier version): After addRoundKey(10): D206101FD118CE2AABA5AB96A5BB33A0 After invShiftRows: D2BBAB2AD1063396AB1810A0A5A5CE1F After invSubBytes: 7FFE0E9551A566350E347C472929ECCB After addRoundKey(9): CE2AD677DBD8DFEF134FCF99654FA58A After invMixColumns: 26FDB42A7DBA1FEBAC7B64B93194FB5B After invShiftRows: 269464EB7DFDFBB9ACBAB45B317B1F2A After invSubBytes: 23E78C3C132163DBAAC0C6572E03CB95 After addRoundKey(8): 2D1E8F0F288802E33DC6CC537F1E310A After invMixColumns: A93F7653A44F0CA650D9698422ACD80C After invShiftRows: A9AC69A6A43FD884504F760C22D90C53 After invSubBytes: B7AAE4C51D252D4F6C920F8194E58150 After addRoundKey(7): 96DFF34228754F44C03D64BD52FE71CB After invMixColumns: F2BC7CCAC5150E8898A6746E3B893490 After invShiftRows: F2897488C5BC346E98157C903BA60ECA After invSubBytes: 04F2CA9707782845E22F019649C5D710 After addRoundKey(6): E8938112135D5DC97BD008A123714CB7 After invMixColumns: 486CEA26FC6B1D50F3B684C3B6A89027 After invShiftRows: 48A88450FC6C90C3F36BEA27B6B61D26 After invSubBytes: D46F4F6C55B896337E05BB3D7979DE23 After addRoundKey(5): AB4164E4ADFCA83AF3DFC7868A324CB3 After invMixColumns: 62BE79CF9AE002BB53B8BD3B9DB5D5BA After invShiftRows: 62B5BDBB9ABED53B53E079BA9DB802CF After invSubBytes: ABD2CDFE375AB54950A0AFC0759A6A5F After addRoundKey(4): 45D41785B030A0C8253EED720B0B8474 After invMixColumns: 340D605A022FD91CD6600D3F30D8445C After invShiftRows: 34D80D1C020D443FD62F605C3060D95A After invSubBytes: 282DF3C46AF386254A4E90A70890E546 After addRoundKey(3): B8BAC794039F49DFB8BAC794039F49DF After invMixColumns: B417699B4969173DB417699B4969173D After invShiftRows: B469693D4917179BB469693D4917179B After invSubBytes: C6E4E48BA48787E8C6E4E48BA48787E8 After addRoundKey(2): 5D7C7C425D7C7C425D7C7C425D7C7C42 After invMixColumns: 7C6363637C6363637C6363637C636363 After invShiftRows: 7C6363637C6363637C6363637C636363 After invSubBytes: 01000000010000000100000001000000 After addRoundKey(1): 63636363636363636363636363636363 After invMixColumns: 63636363636363636363636363636363 After invShiftRows: 63636363636363636363636363636363 After invSubBytes: 00000000000000000000000000000000 After addRoundKey(0): 00000000000000000000000000000000 The decryption of the ciphertext: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 The decryption of the ciphertext: 00000000000000000000000000000000

The Plaintext is: 00 44 88 CC 11 55 99 DD 22 66 AA EE 33 77 BB FF The CipherKey is: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 The expanded key is: 00000000 00000000 62626262 AAAAAAAA 6F0D6F0D 7DD77DD7 535E313C 96413CEB 9EC0F1CD 2B6A56BD 64A45598 6D0751EC E743168E 747322CE 105345CB 00000000 00000000 63636363 FBFBFBFB 6C0F6C0F 8D768D76 545B3738 8AFC7107 AAF1C6FE 31CDBCBB 06F731CF BB76CA71 B04776B9 ED9B5120 F8BFC970 00000000 00000000 63636363 FBFBFBFB 6C0F6C0F 8D768D76 EDE28E81 81F77A0C 8F6DE362 2BDCA6AA FD907311 A975D379 E8780B1A 0B7EADD4 0A727963 00000000 00000000 63636363 FBFBFBFB CFACCFAC 6A916A91 C16DA20E C1503AAB 2845E7E9 DF8FB51E 5217F019 0B84312F 9C8B7B62 A125143B 179CE785 After addRoundKey(0): 00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF After subBytes: 638293C31BFC33F5C4EEACEA4BC12816 After shiftRows: 63FCAC161BEE28C3C4C193F54B8233EA After mixColumns: 6379E6D9F467FB76AD063CF4D2EB8AA3 After addRoundKey(1): 6379E6D9F467FB76AD063CF4D2EB8AA3 After subBytes: FBB68E35BF850F38956FEBBFB5E97E0A After shiftRows: FB85EB0ABF6F7E3595E98E38B5B60FBF After mixColumns: 98C6AD6C9FD673A1A7ED33B3006CC718 After addRoundKey(2): FAA5CE0FFDB510C2C58E50D0620FA47B After subBytes: 2D068B7654D5CA25A6195370AA764921 After shiftRows: 2DD5532154194976A6768B25AA06CA70 After mixColumns: 4C483DB3BCCB454063E9B246FF93B3C9 After addRoundKey(3): E6B3C6481630BEBBC91249BD55684832 After subBytes: 8E6DB4524704AEEADDC93B7AFC455223 After shiftRows: 8E043B2347C95252DD45B4EAFC6DAE7A After mixColumns: 13E899F0CE6ADCF6307ACE4280B55828 After addRoundKey(4): 7C84F53FC365D35A5F16A28D8DBA5784 After subBytes: 105FE6752E4D66BECF473A5D5DF45B5F After shiftRows: 104D3A5F2E475B75CFF4E6BE5D5F665D After mixColumns: 929BC8F9BB384084DAB3353F60142964 After addRoundKey(5): EF1645936C4E3615A73EB855B7625FF5 After subBytes: DF476EDC502F05595CB26CFCA9AACFE6 After shiftRows: DF2F6CE650B2CFDC5CAA6E59A94705FC After mixColumns: 5ED319EE7EB9182E6AF8C19279D4FB41 After addRoundKey(6): 0D87F42F20E2FA435BCF4F3045EC7A4F After subBytes: D717BF15B7982D1A398A84046ECEDA84 After shiftRows: D7988484B78ADA1539CEBF1A6E172D04 After mixColumns: 06EFCB6D3FD8ADB89E7EBC0ECC332F80 After addRoundKey(7): 90654AAC7E245AE8A20FC6342734232B After subBytes: 604DD691F336BE9B3A76B418CC1826F1 After shiftRows: 6036B4F1F37626913A18D69BCC4DBE18 After mixColumns: DF3A2DDBD0E4616711F023ADF297CE8C After addRoundKey(8): 4190A2F310150C22E036C04A3F69AC65 After subBytes: 83603A0DCA59FE93E105BAD675F9914D After shiftRows: 8359BA4DCA05910DE1F93A937560FED6 After mixColumns: 01A962E71C65E1CB60D5C2C6627A93B6 After addRoundKey(9): 2A98493876A83D4436696473DFC139A8 After subBytes: E5463B0738C2271B05F9438F9E7812C2 After shiftRows: E5C243C238F9120705783B1B9E46278F After mixColumns: 0D7DFC2A75E0ECADA2A3267A45F41CDD After addRoundKey(10): 697B0178D1177CBAF792558ADD3B0DC4 After subBytes: F9217CBC3EF010F4684FFC7EC1E2D71C After shiftRows: F9F0FC1C3E4FD7BC68E27CF4C121107E After mixColumns: 0201CE24C67E1BB965C775D594CD4295 After addRoundKey(11): 6FBA672FC1086E3D340DA6E478BC3BBA After subBytes: A8F4851578309F2718D72469BC65E2F4 After shiftRows: A83024F478D7E21518658527BCF49F69 After mixColumns: CB50D70465E54F973D610586929CD666 After addRoundKey(12): 2CE03F9826A2371C2B170EFD1C25CC04 After subBytes: 71E17546F73A9A9CF1F0AB549C3F4BF2 After shiftRows: 713AABF2F7F04B46F13F759C9CE19A54 After mixColumns: F5110BFDF3975B35518C9B61D5A4AE6C After addRoundKey(13): 81FC005C800C251073DD36751B847A57 After subBytes: 0CB0634ACDFE3FCA8FC1059DAF5FDA5B After shiftRows: 0CFE055BCDC1DA4A8F5F63CAAFB03F9D After addRoundKey(14): 1C060F4C9E7EA8D6CA961A2D64C05C18 The ciphertext: 1C 9E CA 64 06 7E 96 C0 0F A8 1A 5C 4C D6 2D 18

After addRoundKey(14): 0CFE055BCDC1DA4A8F5F63CAAFB03F9D After invShiftRows: 0CB0634ACDFE3FCA8FC1059DAF5FDA5B After invSubBytes: 81FC005C800C251073DD36751B847A57 After addRoundKey(13): F5110BFDF3975B35518C9B61D5A4AE6C After invMixColumns: 713AABF2F7F04B46F13F759C9CE19A54 After invShiftRows: 71E17546F73A9A9CF1F0AB549C3F4BF2 After invSubBytes: 2CE03F9826A2371C2B170EFD1C25CC04 After addRoundKey(12): CB50D70465E54F973D610586929CD666 After invMixColumns: A83024F478D7E21518658527BCF49F69 After invShiftRows: A8F4851578309F2718D72469BC65E2F4 After invSubBytes: 6FBA672FC1086E3D340DA6E478BC3BBA After addRoundKey(11): 0201CE24C67E1BB965C775D594CD4295 After invMixColumns: F9F0FC1C3E4FD7BC68E27CF4C121107E After invShiftRows: F9217CBC3EF010F4684FFC7EC1E2D71C After invSubBytes: 697B0178D1177CBAF792558ADD3B0DC4 After addRoundKey(10): 0D7DFC2A75E0ECADA2A3267A45F41CDD After invMixColumns: E5C243C238F9120705783B1B9E46278F After invShiftRows: E5463B0738C2271B05F9438F9E7812C2 After invSubBytes: 2A98493876A83D4436696473DFC139A8 After addRoundKey(9): 01A962E71C65E1CB60D5C2C6627A93B6 After invMixColumns: 8359BA4DCA05910DE1F93A937560FED6 After invShiftRows: 83603A0DCA59FE93E105BAD675F9914D After invSubBytes: 4190A2F310150C22E036C04A3F69AC65 After addRoundKey(8): DF3A2DDBD0E4616711F023ADF297CE8C After invMixColumns: 6036B4F1F37626913A18D69BCC4DBE18 After invShiftRows: 604DD691F336BE9B3A76B418CC1826F1 After invSubBytes: 90654AAC7E245AE8A20FC6342734232B After addRoundKey(7): 06EFCB6D3FD8ADB89E7EBC0ECC332F80 After invMixColumns: D7988484B78ADA1539CEBF1A6E172D04 After invShiftRows: D717BF15B7982D1A398A84046ECEDA84 After invSubBytes: 0D87F42F20E2FA435BCF4F3045EC7A4F After addRoundKey(6): 5ED319EE7EB9182E6AF8C19279D4FB41 After invMixColumns: DF2F6CE650B2CFDC5CAA6E59A94705FC After invShiftRows: DF476EDC502F05595CB26CFCA9AACFE6 After invSubBytes: EF1645936C4E3615A73EB855B7625FF5 After addRoundKey(5): 929BC8F9BB384084DAB3353F60142964 After invMixColumns: 104D3A5F2E475B75CFF4E6BE5D5F665D After invShiftRows: 105FE6752E4D66BECF473A5D5DF45B5F After invSubBytes: 7C84F53FC365D35A5F16A28D8DBA5784 After addRoundKey(4): 13E899F0CE6ADCF6307ACE4280B55828 After invMixColumns: 8E043B2347C95252DD45B4EAFC6DAE7A After invShiftRows: 8E6DB4524704AEEADDC93B7AFC455223 After invSubBytes: E6B3C6481630BEBBC91249BD55684832 After addRoundKey(3): 4C483DB3BCCB454063E9B246FF93B3C9 After invMixColumns: 2DD5532154194976A6768B25AA06CA70 After invShiftRows: 2D068B7654D5CA25A6195370AA764921 After invSubBytes: FAA5CE0FFDB510C2C58E50D0620FA47B After addRoundKey(2): 98C6AD6C9FD673A1A7ED33B3006CC718 After invMixColumns: FB85EB0ABF6F7E3595E98E38B5B60FBF After invShiftRows: FBB68E35BF850F38956FEBBFB5E97E0A After invSubBytes: 6379E6D9F467FB76AD063CF4D2EB8AA3 After addRoundKey(1): 6379E6D9F467FB76AD063CF4D2EB8AA3 After invMixColumns: 63FCAC161BEE28C3C4C193F54B8233EA After invShiftRows: 638293C31BFC33F5C4EEACEA4BC12816 After invSubBytes: 00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF After addRoundKey(0): 00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF The decryption of the ciphertext: 00 44 88 CC 11 55 99 DD 22 66 AA EE 33 77 BB FF The decryption of the ciphertext: 00112233445566778899AABBCCDDEEFF