A block/compound statement is created by grouping declarations
and statements using curly brackets (as seen in "if" statements and
functions). Is a semicolon required after the closing curly
brackets or not? What happens if you get this wrong (either
adding a semicolon if it's not required, or leaving it out if it is
required)? Note that an isolated semicolon is considered a legal
statement that does nothing.
Sometimes it can be hard for a reader to determine which "if" an "else" corresponds to. Know the rule for resolving this apparent ambiguity. (Also: Proper indentation can make code more readable in cases like this, but is it required? Do changes in indentation have any effect on how the code is compiled?)
Understand how a chain of "else if" statements can be used to handle a multi-way decision.
Understand the basics of switch statements, and how they work, including the use of the keywords "case" and "default".
Understand when the use of the "break" keyword in a switch statement is required, when it can useful to omit it, and when it's not required but probably a good idea.
The three expressions separated by semicolons in a for loop are allowed to be empty. What happens if the first, second, or last of these is empty?
Understand the effect of the keywords "break" and "continue" in loops.
"while" and "do-while" loops have slightly different syntax. Which one requires a semicolon at the end?