Department of Computer Science

Machine Learning Research Group

University of Texas at Austin Artificial Intelligence Lab

Publications: Inductive Logic Programming

Inductive logic programming (ILP) studies the learning of (Prolog) logic programs and other relational knowledge from examples. Most machine learning algorithms are restricted to finite, propositional, feature-based representations of examples and concepts and cannot learn complex relational and recursive knowledge. ILP allows learning with much richer representations. Our work has focussed on applications of ILP to various problems in natural language and theory refinement for logic programs.
  1. Online Inference-Rule Learning from Natural-Language Extractions
    [Details] [PDF] [Poster]
    Sindhu Raghavan and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the 3rd Statistical Relational AI (StaRAI-13) workshop at AAAI '13, July 2013.
    In this paper, we consider the problem of learning commonsense knowledge in the form of first-order rules from incomplete and noisy natural-language extractions produced by an off-the-shelf information extraction (IE) system. Much of the information conveyed in text must be inferred from what is explicitly stated since easily inferable facts are rarely mentioned. The proposed rule learner accounts for this phenomenon by learning rules in which the body of the rule contains relations that are usually explicitly stated, while the head employs a less-frequently mentioned relation that is easily inferred. The rule learner processes training examples in an online manner to allow it to scale to large text corpora. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to weighting rules using a curated lexical ontology like WordNet. The learned rules along with their parameters are then used to infer implicit information using a Bayesian Logic Program. Experimental evaluation on a machine reading testbed demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed methods.
    ML ID: 287
  2. Bayesian Logic Programs for Plan Recognition and Machine Reading
    [Details] [PDF] [Slides]
    Sindhu Raghavan
    PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Texas at Austin, December 2012. 170.
    Several real world tasks involve data that is uncertain and relational in nature. Traditional approaches like first-order logic and probabilistic models either deal with structured data or uncertainty, but not both. To address these limitations, statistical relational learning (SRL), a new area in machine learning integrating both first-order logic and probabilistic graphical models, has emerged in the recent past. The advantage of SRL models is that they can handle both uncertainty and structured/relational data. As a result, they are widely used in domains like social network analysis, biological data analysis, and natural language processing. Bayesian Logic Programs (BLPs), which integrate both first-order logic and Bayesian networks are a powerful SRL formalism developed in the recent past. In this dissertation, we develop approaches using BLPs to solve two real world tasks -- plan recognition and machine reading.

    Plan recognition is the task of predicting an agent's top-level plans based on its observed actions. It is an abductive reasoning task that involves inferring cause from effect. In the first part of the dissertation, we develop an approach to abductive plan recognition using BLPs. Since BLPs employ logical deduction to construct the networks, they cannot be used effectively for abductive plan recognition as is. Therefore, we extend BLPs to use logical abduction to construct Bayesian networks and call the resulting model Bayesian Abductive Logic Programs (BALPs).

    In the second part of the dissertation, we apply BLPs to the task of machine reading, which involves automatic extraction of knowledge from natural language text. Most information extraction (IE) systems identify facts that are explicitly stated in text. However, much of the information conveyed in text must be inferred from what is explicitly stated since easily inferable facts are rarely mentioned. Human readers naturally use common sense knowledge and "read between the lines" to infer such implicit information from the explicitly stated facts. Since IE systems do not have access to common sense knowledge, they cannot perform deeper reasoning to infer implicitly stated facts. Here, we first develop an approach using BLPs to infer implicitly stated facts from natural language text. It involves learning uncertain common sense knowledge in the form of probabilistic first-order rules by mining a large corpus of automatically extracted facts using an existing rule learner. These rules are then used to derive additional facts from extracted information using BLP inference. We then develop an online rule learner that handles the concise, incomplete nature of natural-language text and learns first-order rules from noisy IE extractions. Finally, we develop a novel approach to calculate the weights of the rules using a curated lexical ontology like WordNet.

    Both tasks described above involve inference and learning from partially observed or incomplete data. In plan recognition, the underlying cause or the top-level plan that resulted in the observed actions is not known or observed. Further, only a subset of the executed actions can be observed by the plan recognition system resulting in partially observed data. Similarly, in machine reading, since some information is implicitly stated, they are rarely observed in the data. In this dissertation, we demonstrate the efficacy of BLPs for inference and learning from incomplete data. Experimental comparison on various benchmark data sets on both tasks demonstrate the superior performance of BLPs over state-of-the-art methods.

    ML ID: 280
  3. Online Structure Learning for Markov Logic Networks
    [Details] [PDF] [Slides]
    Tuyen N. Huynh and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML-PKDD 2011), 81-96, September 2011.
    Most existing learning methods for Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) use batch training, which becomes computationally expensive and eventually infeasible for large datasets with thousands of training examples which may not even all fit in main memory. To address this issue, previous work has used online learning to train MLNs. However, they all assume that the model's structure (set of logical clauses) is given, and only learn the model's parameters. However, the input structure is usually incomplete, so it should also be updated. In this work, we present OSL-the first algorithm that performs both online structure and parameter learning for MLNs. Experimental results on two real- world datasets for natural-language field segmentation show that OSL outperforms systems that cannot revise structure.
    ML ID: 267
  4. Extending Bayesian Logic Programs for Plan Recognition and Machine Reading
    [Details] [PDF] [Slides]
    Sindhu V. Raghavan
    Technical Report, PhD proposal, Department of Computer Science, The University of Texas at Austin, May 2011.

    Statistical relational learning (SRL) is the area of machine learning that integrates both first-order logic and probabilistic graphical models. The advantage of these formalisms is that they can handle both uncertainty and structured/relational data. As a result, they are widely used in domains like social network analysis, biological data analysis, and natural language processing. Bayesian Logic Programs (BLPs), which integrate both first-order logic and Bayesian networks are a powerful SRL formalism developed in the recent past. In this proposal, we focus on applying BLPs to two real worlds tasks -- plan recognition and machine reading.

    Plan recognition is the task of predicting an agent's top-level plans based on its observed actions. It is an abductive reasoning task that involves inferring cause from effect. In the first part of the proposal, we develop an approach to abductive plan recognition using BLPs. Since BLPs employ logical deduction to construct the networks, they cannot be used effectively for plan recognition as is. Therefore, we extend BLPs to use logical abduction to construct Bayesian networks and call the resulting model Bayesian Abductive Logic Programs (BALPs). Experimental evaluation on three benchmark data sets demonstrate that BALPs outperform the existing state-of-art methods like Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) for plan recognition.

    For future work, we propose to apply BLPs to the task of machine reading, which involves automatic extraction of knowledge from natural language text. Present day information extraction (IE) systems that are trained for machine reading are limited by their ability to extract only factual information that is stated explicitly in the text. We propose to improve the performance of an off-the-shelf IE system by inducing general knowledge rules about the domain using the facts already extracted by the IE system. We then use these rules to infer additional facts using BLPs, thereby improving the recall of the underlying IE system. Here again, the standard inference used in BLPs cannot be used to construct the networks. So, we extend BLPs to perform forward inference on all facts extracted by the IE system and then construct the ground Bayesian networks. We initially use an existing inductive logic programming (ILP) based rule learner to learn the rules. In the longer term, we would like to develop a rule/structure learner that is capable of learning an even better set of first-order rules for BLPs.

    ML ID: 258
  5. Improving the Accuracy and Scalability of Discriminative Learning Methods for Markov Logic Networks
    [Details] [PDF] [Slides]
    Tuyen N. Huynh
    PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Texas at Austin, May 2011.
    159 pages.

    Many real-world problems involve data that both have complex structures and uncertainty. Statistical relational learning (SRL) is an emerging area of research that addresses the problem of learning from these noisy structured/relational data. Markov logic networks (MLNs), sets of weighted first-order logic formulae, are a simple but powerful SRL formalism that generalizes both first-order logic and Markov networks. MLNs have been successfully applied to a variety of real-world problems ranging from extraction knowledge from text to visual event recognition. Most of the existing learning algorithms for MLNs are in the generative setting: they try to learn a model that is equally capable of predicting the values of all variables given an arbitrary set of evidence; and they do not scale to problems with thousands of examples. However, many real-world problems in structured/relational data are discriminative---where the variables are divided into two disjoint sets input and output, and the goal is to correctly predict the values of the output variables given evidence data about the input variables. In addition, these problems usually involve data that have thousands of examples. Thus, it is important to develop new discriminative learning methods for MLNs that are more accurate and more scalable, which are the topics addressed in this thesis.

    First, we present a new method that discriminatively learns both the structure and parameters for a special class of MLNs where all the clauses are non-recursive ones. Non-recursive clauses arise in many learning problems in Inductive Logic Programming. To further improve the predictive accuracy, we propose a max-margin approach to learning weights for MLNs. Then, to address the issue of scalability, we present CDA, an online max-margin weight learning algorithm for MLNs. Ater that, we present OSL, the first algorithm that performs both online structure learning and parameter learning. Finally, we address an issue arising in applying MLNs to many real-world problems: learning in the presence of many hard constraints. Including hard constraints during training greatly increases the computational complexity of the learning problem. Thus, we propose a simple heuristic for selecting which hard constraints to include during training.

    Experimental results on several real-world problems show that the proposed methods are more accurate, more scalable (can handle problems with thousands of examples), or both more accurate and more scalable than existing learning methods for MLNs.

    ML ID: 257
  6. Discriminative Learning with Markov Logic Networks
    [Details] [PDF] [Slides]
    Tuyen N. Huynh
    October 2009. Ph.D. proposal, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Texas at Austin.
    Statistical relational learning (SRL) is an emerging area of research that addresses the problem of learning from noisy structured/relational data. Markov logic networks (MLNs), sets of weighted clauses, are a simple but powerful SRL formalism that combines the expressivity of first-order logic with the flexibility of probabilistic reasoning. Most of the existing learning algorithms for MLNs are in the generative setting: they try to learn a model that maximizes the likelihood of the training data. However, most of the learning problems in relational data are discriminative. So to utilize the power of MLNs, we need discriminative learning methods that well match these discriminative tasks.

    In this proposal, we present two new discriminative learning algorithms for MLNs. The first one is a discriminative structure and weight learner for MLNs with non-recursive clauses. We use a variant of Aleph, an off-the-shelf Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, to learn a large set of Horn clauses from the training data, then we apply an L1-regularization weight learner to select a small set of non-zero weight clauses that maximizes the conditional log-likelihood (CLL) of the training data. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms existing learning methods for MLNs and traditional ILP systems in term of predictive accuracy, and its performance is comparable to state-of-the-art results on some ILP benchmarks. The second algorithm we present is a max-margin weight learner for MLNs. Instead of maximizing the CLL of the data like all existing discriminative weight learners for MLNs, the new weight learner tries to maximize the ratio between the probability of the correct label (the observable data) and and the closest incorrect label (among all the wrong labels, this one has the highest probability), which can be formulated as an optimization problem called 1-slack structural SVM. This optimization problem can be solved by an efficient algorithm based on the cutting plane method. However, this cutting plane algorithm requires an efficient inference method as a subroutine. Unfortunately, exact inference in MLNs is intractable. So we develop a new approximation inference method for MLNs based on Linear Programming relaxation. Extensive experiments in two real-world MLN applications demonstrate that the proposed max-margin weight learner generally achieves higher F1 scores than the current best discriminative weight learner for MLNs.

    For future work, our short-term goal is to develop a more efficient inference algorithm and test our max-margin weight learner on more complex problems where there are complicated relationships between the input and output variables and among the outputs. In the longer-term, our plan is to develop more efficient learning algorithms through online learning and algorithms that revise both the clauses and their weights to improve predictive performance.

    ML ID: 238
  7. Discriminative Structure and Parameter Learning for Markov Logic Networks
    [Details] [PDF] [Slides]
    Tuyen N. Huynh and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), Helsinki, Finland, July 2008.
    Markov logic networks (MLNs) are an expressive representation for statistical relational learning that generalizes both first-order logic and graphical models. Existing methods for learning the logical structure of an MLN are not discriminative; however, many relational learning problems involve specific target predicates that must be inferred from given background information. We found that existing MLN methods perform very poorly on several such ILP benchmark problems, and we present improved discriminative methods for learning MLN clauses and weights that outperform existing MLN and traditional ILP methods.
    ML ID: 220
  8. Learning Semantic Parsers: An Important But Under-Studied Problem
    [Details] [PDF]
    Raymond J. Mooney
    In Papers from the AAAI 2004 Spring Symposium on Language Learning: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, 39--44, Stanford, CA, March 2004.
    Computational systems that learn to transform natural-language sentences into semantic representations have important practical applications in building natural-language interfaces. They can also provide insight into important issues in human language acquisition. However, within AI, computational linguistics, and machine learning, there has been relatively little research on developing systems that learn such semantic parsers. This paper briefly reviews our own work in this area and presents semantic-parser acquistion as an important challenge problem for AI.
    ML ID: 138
  9. Relational Data Mining with Inductive Logic Programming for Link Discovery
    [Details] [PDF]
    Raymond J. Mooney, P. Melville, L. R. Tang, J. Shavlik, I. Dutra and D. Page
    Kargupta, H., Joshi, A., Sivakumar K., and Yesha, Y., editors, Data Mining: Next Generation Challenges and Future Directions:239--254, Menlo Park, CA, 2004. AAAI Press.
    Link discovery (LD) is an important task in data mining for counter-terrorism and is the focus of DARPA's Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery (EELD) research program. Link discovery concerns the identification of complex relational patterns that indicate potentially threatening activities in large amounts of relational data. Most data-mining methods assume data is in the form of a feature-vector (a single relational table) and cannot handle multi-relational data. Inductive logic programming is a form of relational data mining that discovers rules in first-order logic from multi-relational data. This paper discusses the application of ILP to learning patterns for link discovery.
    ML ID: 136
  10. Integrating Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches in Inductive Logic Programming: Applications in Natural Language Processing and Relational Data Mining
    [Details] [PDF]
    Lappoon R. Tang
    PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX, August 2003.
    Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) is the intersection of Machine Learning and Logic Programming in which the learner's hypothesis space is the set of logic programs. There are two major ILP approaches: top-down and bottom-up. The former searches the hypothesis space from general to specific while the latter the other way round. Integrating both approaches has been demonstrated to be more effective. Integrated ILP systems were previously developed for two tasks: learning semantic parsers (Chillin), and mining relational data (Progol). Two new integrated ILP systems for these tasks that overcome limitations of existing methods will be presented.
    Cocktail is a new ILP algorithm for inducing semantic parsers. For this task, two features of a parse state, functional structure and context, provide important information for disambiguation. A bottom-up approach is more suitable for learning the former, while top-down is better for the latter. By allowing both approaches to induce program clauses and choosing the best combination of their results, Cocktail learns more effective parsers. Experimental results on learning natural-language interfaces for two databases demonstrate that it learns more accurate parsers than Chillin, the previous best method for this task.
    Beth is a new integrated ILP algorithm for relational data mining. The Inverse Entailment approach to ILP, implemented in the Progol and Aleph systems, starts with the construction of a bottom clause, the most specific hypothesis covering a seed example. When mining relational data with a large number of background facts, the bottom clause becomes intractably large, making learning very inefficient. A top-down approach heuristically guides the construction of clauses without building a bottom clause; however, it wastes time exploring clauses that cover no positive examples. By using a top-down approach to heuristically guide the construction of generalizations of a bottom clause, Beth combines the strength of both approaches. Learning patterns for detecting potential terrorist activity is a current challenge problem for relational data mining. Experimental results on artificial data for this task with over half a million facts show that Beth is significantly more efficient at discovering such patterns than Aleph and m-Foil, two leading ILP systems.
    ML ID: 130
  11. Scaling Up ILP to Large Examples: Results on Link Discovery for Counter-Terrorism
    [Details] [PDF]
    Lappoon R. Tang, Raymond J. Mooney, and Prem Melville
    In Proceedings of the KDD-2003 Workshop on Multi-Relational Data Mining (MRDM-2003), 107--121, Washington DC, August 2003.
    Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) has been shown to be a viable approach to many problems in multi-relational data mining (e.g. bioinformatics). Link discovery (LD) is an important task in data mining for counter-terrorism and is the focus of DARPA's program on Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery (EELD). Learning patterns for LD is a novel problem in relational data mining that is characterized by having an unprecedented number of background facts. As a result of the explosion in background facts, the efficiency of existing ILP algorithms becomes a serious limitation. This paper presents a new ILP algorithm that integrates top-down and bottom-up search in order to reduce search when processing large examples. Experimental results on EELD data confirm that it significantly improves efficiency over existing ILP methods.
    ML ID: 128
  12. Bottom-Up Relational Learning of Pattern Matching Rules for Information Extraction
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf and Raymond J. Mooney
    Journal of Machine Learning Research:177-210, 2003.
    Information Extraction is a form of shallow text processing that locates a specified set of relevant items in a natural-language document. Systems for this task require significant domain-specific knowledge and are time-consuming and difficult to build by hand, making them a good application for machine learning. We present a aystem, RAPIER, that uses pairs of sample documents and filled templates to induce pattern-match rules that directly extract fillers for the slots in the template. RAPIER employs a bottom-up learning algorithm which incorporates techniques from several inductive logic programming systems and acquires unbounded patterns that include constraints on the words, part-of-speech tags, and semantic classes present in the filler and the surrounding text. We present encouraging experimental results on two domains.
    ML ID: 124
  13. Relational Data Mining with Inductive Logic Programming for Link Discovery
    [Details] [PDF]
    Raymond J. Mooney, Prem Melville, Lappoon R. Tang, Jude Shavlik, Inês de Castro Dutra, David Page, and Vítor Santos Costa
    In Proceedings of the National Science Foundation Workshop on Next Generation Data Mining, Baltimore, MD, November 2002.
    Link discovery (LD) is an important task in data mining for counter-terrorism and is the focus of DARPA's Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery (EELD) research program. Link discovery concerns the identification of complex relational patterns that indicate potentially threatening activities in large amounts of relational data. Most data-mining methods assume data is in the form of a feature-vector (a single relational table) and cannot handle multi-relational data. Inductive logic programming is a form of relational data mining that discovers rules in first-order logic from multi-relational data. This paper discusses the application of ILP to learning patterns for link discovery.
    ML ID: 116
  14. Using Multiple Clause Constructors in Inductive Logic Programming for Semantic Parsing
    [Details] [PDF]
    Lappoon R. Tang and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Machine Learning, 466-477, Freiburg, Germany, 2001.
    In this paper, we explored a learning approach which combines different learning methods in inductive logic programming (ILP) to allow a learner to produce more expressive hypothese than that of each individual learner. Such a learning approach may be useful when the performance of the task depends on solving a large amount of classification problems and each has its own characteristics which may or may not fit a particular learning method. The task of sematnic parser acquisition in two different domains was attempted and preliminary results demonstrated that such an approach is promising.
    ML ID: 107
  15. Automated Construction of Database Interfaces: Integrating Statistical and Relational Learning for Semantic Parsing
    [Details] [PDF]
    Lappoon R. Tang and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Joint SIGDAT Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora(EMNLP/VLC-2000), 133-141, Hong Kong, October 2000.
    The development of natural language interfaces (NLI's) for databases has been a challenging problem in natural language processing (NLP) since the 1970's. The need for NLI's has become more pronounced due to the widespread access to complex databases now available through the Internet. A challenging problem for empirical NLP is the automated acquisition of NLI's from training examples. We present a method for integrating statistical and relational learning techniques for this task which exploits the strength of both approaches. Experimental results from three different domains suggest that such an approach is more robust than a previous purely logic-based approach.
    ML ID: 102
  16. Relational Learning of Pattern-Match Rules for Information Extraction
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-99), 328-334, Orlando, FL, July 1999.
    Information extraction is a form of shallow text processing that locates a specified set of relevant items in a natural-language document. Systems for this task require significant domain-specific knowledge and are time-consuming and difficult to build by hand, making them a good application for machine learning. This paper presents a system, Rapier, that takes pairs of sample documents and filled templates and induces pattern-match rules that directly extract fillers for the slots in the template. Rapier employs a bottom-up learning algorithm which incorporates techniques from several inductive logic programming systems and acquires unbounded patterns that include constraints on the words, part-of-speech tags, and semantic classes present in the filler and the surrounding text. We present encouraging experimental results on two domains.
    ML ID: 94
  17. Relational Learning Techniques for Natural Language Information Extraction
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf
    PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX, August 1998. 142 pages. Also appears as Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Technical Report AI 98-276.
    The recent growth of online information available in the form of natural language documents creates a greater need for computing systems with the ability to process those documents to simplify access to the information. One type of processing appropriate for many tasks is information extraction, a type of text skimming that retrieves specific types of information from text. Although information extraction systems have existed for two decades, these systems have generally been built by hand and contain domain specific information, making them difficult to port to other domains. A few researchers have begun to apply machine learning to information extraction tasks, but most of this work has involved applying learning to pieces of a much larger system. This dissertation presents a novel rule representation specific to natural language and a relational learning system, Rapier, which learns information extraction rules. Rapier takes pairs of documents and filled templates indicating the information to be extracted and learns pattern-matching rules to extract fillers for the slots in the template. The system is tested on several domains, showing its ability to learn rules for different tasks. Rapier's performance is compared to a propositional learning system for information extraction, demonstrating the superiority of relational learning for some information extraction tasks. Because one difficulty in using machine learning to develop natural language processing systems is the necessity of providing annotated examples to supervised learning systems, this dissertation also describes an attempt to reduce the number of examples Rapier requires by employing a form of active learning. Experimental results show that the number of examples required to achieve a given level of performance can be significantly reduced by this method.
    ML ID: 88
  18. An Experimental Comparison of Genetic Programming and Inductive Logic Programming on Learning Recursive List Functions
    [Details] [PDF]
    Lappoon R. Tang, Mary Elaine Califf, and Raymond J. Mooney
    Technical Report AI 98-271, Artificial Intelligence Lab, University of Texas at Austin, May 1998.
    This paper experimentally compares three approaches to program induction: inductive logic programming (ILP), genetic programming (GP), and genetic logic programming (GLP) (a variant of GP for inducing Prolog programs). Each of these methods was used to induce four simple, recursive, list-manipulation functions. The results indicate that ILP is the most likely to induce a correct program from small sets of random examples, while GP is generally less accurate. GLP performs the worst, and is rarely able to induce a correct program. Interpretations of these results in terms of differences in search methods and inductive biases are presented.
    ML ID: 83
  19. Advantages of Decision Lists and Implicit Negatives in Inductive Logic Programming
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf and Raymond J. Mooney
    New Generation Computing, 16(3):263-281, 1998.
    This paper demonstrates the capabilities of FOIDL, an inductive logic programming (ILP) system whose distinguishing characteristics are the ability to produce first-order decision lists, the use of an output completeness assumption as a substitute for negative examples, and the use of intensional background knowledge. The development of FOIDL was originally motivated by the problem of learning to generate the past tense of English verbs; however, this paper demonstrates its superior performance on two different sets of benchmark ILP problems. Tests on the finite element mesh design problem show that FOIDL's decision lists enable it to produce generally more accurate results than a range of methods previously applied to this problem. Tests with a selection of list-processing problems from Bratko's introductory Prolog text demonstrate that the combination of implicit negatives and intensionality allow FOIDL to learn correct programs from far fewer examples than FOIL.
    ML ID: 82
  20. Using Multi-Strategy Learning to Improve Planning Efficiency and Quality
    [Details] [PDF]
    Tara A. Estlin
    PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 1998.
    Artificial intelligence planning systems have become an important tool for automating a wide variety of tasks. However, even the most current planning algorithms suffer from two major problems. First, they often require infeasible amounts of computation time to solve problems in most domains. And second, they are not guaranteed to return the best solution to a planning problem, and in fact can sometimes return very low-quality solutions. One way to address these problems is to provide a planning system with domain-specific control knowledge, which helps guide the planner towards more promising search paths. Machine learning techniques enable a planning system to automatically acquire search-control knowledge for different applications. A considerable amount of planning and learning research has been devoted to acquiring rules that improve planning efficiency, also known as speedup learning. Much less work has been down in learning knowledge to improve the quality of plans, even though this is an essential feature for many real-world planning systems. Furthermore, even less research has been done in acquiring control knowledge to improve both these metrics.

    The learning system presented in this dissertation, called SCOPE, is a unique approach to learning control knowledge for planning. SCOPE learns domain-specific control rules for a planner that improve both planning efficiency and plan quality, and it is one of the few systems that can learn control knowledge for partial-order planning. SCOPE's architecture integrates explanation-based learning (EBL) with techniques from inductive logic programming. Specifically, EBL is used to constrain an inductive search for control heuristics that help a planner choose between competing plan refinements. Since SCOPE uses a very flexible training approach, its learning algorithm can be easily focused to prefer search paths that are better for particular evaluation metrics. SCOPE is extensively tested on several planning domains, including a logistics transportation domain and a production manufacturing domain. In these tests, it is shown to significantly improve both planning efficiency and quality and is shown to be more robust than a competing approach.

    ML ID: 81
  21. Relational Learning of Pattern-Match Rules for Information Extraction
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium on Applying Machine Learning to Discourse Processing, 6-11, Standford, CA, March 1998.
    Information extraction is a form of shallow text processing which locates a specified set of relevant items in natural language documents. Such systems can be useful, but require domain-specific knowledge and rules, and are time-consuming and difficult to build by hand, making infomation extraction a good testbed for the application of machine learning techniques to natural language processing. This paper presents a system, RAPIER, that takes pairs of documents and filled templates and induces pattern-match rules that directly extract fillers for the slots in the template. The learning algorithm incorporates techniques from several inductive logic programming systems and learns unbounded patterns that include constraints on the words and part-of-speech tags surrounding the filler. Encouraging results are presented on learning to extract information from computer job postings from the newsgroup misc.jobs.offered.
    ML ID: 80
  22. Relational Learning Techniques for Natural Language Information Extraction
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf
    1997. Ph.D. proposal, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Texas at Austin.
    The recent growth of online information available in the form of natural language documents creates a greater need for computing systems with the ability to process those documents to simplify access to the information. One type of processing appropriate for many tasks is information extraction, a type of text skimming that retrieves specific types of information from text. Although information extraction systems have existed for two decades, these systems have generally been built by hand and contain domain specific information, making them difficult to port to other domains. A few researchers have begun to apply machine learning to information extraction tasks, but most of this work has involved applying learning to pieces of a much larger system. This paper presents a novel rule representation specific to natural language and a learning system, RAPIER, which learns information extraction rules. RAPIER takes pairs of documents and filled templates indicating the information to be extracted and learns patterns to extract fillers for the slots in the template. This proposal presents initial results on a small corpus of computer-related job postings with a preliminary version of RAPIER. Future research will involve several enhancements to RAPIER as well as more thorough testing on several domains and extension to additional natural language processing tasks. We intend to extend the rule representation and algorithm to allow for more types of constraints than are currently supported. We also plan to incorporate active learning, or sample selection, methods, specifically query by committee, into RAPIER. These methods have the potential to substantially reduce the amount of annotation required. We will explore the issue of distinguishing relevant and irrelevant messages, since currently RAPIER only extracts from the any messages given to it, assuming that all are relevant. We also intend to run much larger tests with RAPIER on multiple domains including the terrorism domain from the third and fourth Message Uncderstanding Conferences, which will allow comparison against other systems. Finally, we plan to demonstrate the generality of RAPIER`s representation and algorithm by applying it to other natural language processing tasks such as word sense disambiguation.
    ML ID: 78
  23. Learning to Improve both Efficiency and Quality of Planning
    [Details] [PDF]
    Tara A. Estlin and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-97), 1227-1232, Nagoya, Japan, 1997.
    Most research in learning for planning has concentrated on efficiency gains. Another important goal is improving the quality of final plans. Learning to improve plan quality has been examined by a few researchers, however, little research has been done learning to improve both efficiency and quality. This paper explores this problem by using the SCOPE learning system to acquire control knowledge that improves on both of these metrics. Since SCOPE uses a very flexible training approach, we can easily focus it's learning algorithm to prefer search paths that are better for particular evaluation metrics. Experimental results show that SCOPE can significantly improve both the quality of final plans and overall planning efficiency.
    ML ID: 77
  24. Applying ILP-based Techniques to Natural Language Information Extraction: An Experiment in Relational Learning
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Workshop Notes of the IJCAI-97 Workshop on Frontiers of Inductive Logic Programming, 7--11, Nagoya, Japan, August 1997.
    Information extraction systems process natural language documents and locate a specific set of relevant items. Given the recent success of empirical or corpus-based approaches in other areas of natural language processing, machine learning has the potential to significantly aid the development of these knowledge-intensive systems. This paper presents a system, RAPIER, that takes pairs of documents and filled templates and induces pattern-match rules that directly extract fillers for the slots in the template. The learning algorithm incorporates techniques from several inductive logic programming systems and learns unbounded patterns that include constraints on the words and part-of-speech tags surrounding the filler. Encouraging results are presented on learning to extract information from computer job postings from the newsgroup misc.jobs.offered.
    ML ID: 76
  25. Learning to Parse Natural Language Database Queries into Logical Form
    [Details] [PDF]
    Cynthia A. Thompson, Raymond J. Mooney, and Lappoon R. Tang
    In Proceedings of the ML-97 Workshop on Automata Induction, Grammatical Inference, and Language Acquisition, Nashville, TN, July 1997.
    For most natural language processing tasks, a parser that maps sentences into a semantic representation is significantly more useful than a grammar or automata that simply recognizes syntactically well-formed strings. This paper reviews our work on using inductive logic programming methods to learn deterministic shift-reduce parsers that translate natural language into a semantic representation. We focus on the task of mapping database queries directly into executable logical form. An overview of the system is presented followed by recent experimental results on corpora of Spanish geography queries and English job-search queries.
    ML ID: 75
  26. Relational Learning of Pattern-Match Rules for Information Extraction
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Natural Language Learning, 9-15, Madrid, Spain, July 1997.
    Information extraction systems process natural language documents and locate a specific set of relevant items. Given the recent success of empirical or corpus-based approaches in other areas of natural language processing, machine learning has the potential to significantly aid the development of these knowledge-intensive systems. This paper presents a system, RAPIER, that takes pairs of documents and filled templates and induces pattern-match rules that directly extract fillers for the slots in the template. The learning algorithm incorporates techniques from several inductive logic programming systems and learns unbounded patterns that include constraints on the words and part-of-speech tags surrounding the filler. Encouraging results are presented on learning to extract information from computer job postings from the newsgroup misc.jobs.offered.
    ML ID: 74
  27. An Inductive Logic Programming Method for Corpus-based Parser Construction
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney
    January 1997. Unpublished Technical Note.
    Empirical methods for building natural language systems has become an important area of research in recent years. Most current approaches are based on propositional learning algorithms and have been applied to the problem of acquiring broad-coverage parsers for relatively shallow (syntactic) representations. This paper outlines an alternative empirical approach based on techniques from a subfield of machine learning known as Inductive Logic Programming (ILP). ILP algorithms, which learn relational (first-order) rules, are used in a parser acquisition system called CHILL that learns rules to control the behavior of a traditional shift-reduce parser. Using this approach, CHILL is able to learn parsers for a variety of different types of analyses, from traditional syntax trees to more meaning-oriented case-role and database query forms. Experimental evidence shows that CHILL performs comparably to propositional learning systems on similar tasks, and is able to go beyond the broad-but-shallow paradigm and learn mappings directly from sentences into useful semantic representations. In a complete database-query application, parsers learned by CHILL outperform an existing hand-crafted system, demonstrating the promise of empricial techniques for automating the construction certain NLP systems.
    ML ID: 71
  28. Inductive Logic Programming for Natural Language Processing
    [Details] [PDF]
    Raymond J. Mooney
    In Stephen Muggleton, editors, Inductive Logic Programming: Selected papers from the 6th International Workshop, 3-22, Berlin, 1996. Springer Verlag.
    This paper reviews our recent work on applying inductive logic programming to the construction of natural language processing systems. We have developed a system, CHILL, that learns a parser from a training corpus of parsed sentences by inducing heuristics that control an initial overly-general shift-reduce parser. CHILL learns syntactic parsers as well as ones that translate English database queries directly into executable logical form. The ATIS corpus of airline information queries was used to test the acquisition of syntactic parsers, and CHILL performed competitively with recent statistical methods. English queries to a small database on U.S. geography were used to test the acquisition of a complete natural language interface, and the parser that CHILL acquired was more accurate than an existing hand-coded system. The paper also includes a discussion of several issues this work has raised regarding the capabilities and testing of ILP systems as well as a summary of our current research directions.
    ML ID: 68
  29. Integrating Explanation-Based and Inductive Learning Techniques to Acquire Search-Control for Planning
    [Details] [PDF]
    Tara A. Estlin
    Technical Report AI96-250, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 1996.
    Planning systems have become an important tool for automating a wide variety of tasks. Control knowledge guides a planner to find solutions quickly and is crucial for efficient planning in most domains. Machine learning techniques enable a planning system to automatically acquire domain-specific search-control knowledge for different applications. Past approaches to learning control information have usually employed explanation-based learning (EBL) to generate control rules. Unfortunately, EBL alone often produces overly complex rules that actually decrease rather than improve overall planning efficiency. This paper presents a novel learning approach for control knowledge acquisition that integrates explanation-based learning with techniques from inductive logic programming. In our learning system SCOPE, EBL is used to constrain an inductive search for control heuristics that help a planner choose between competing plan refinements. SCOPE is one of the few systems to address learning control information for newer, partial-order planners. Specifically, this proposal describes how SCOPE learns domain-specific control rules for the UCPOP planning algorithm. The resulting system is shown to produce significant speedup in two different planning domains, and to be more effective than a pure EBL approach.

    Future research will be performed in three main areas. First, SCOPE's learning algorithm will be extended to include additional techniques such as constructive induction and rule utility analysis. Second, SCOPE will be more thoroughly tested; several real-world planning domains have been identified as possible testbeds, and more in-depth comparisons will be drawn between SCOPE and other competing approaches. Third, SCOPE will be implemented in a different planning system in order to test its portability to other planning algorithms. This work should demonstrate that machine-learning techniques can be a powerful tool in the quest for tractable real-world planning.

    ML ID: 67
  30. Learning to Parse Database Queries using Inductive Logic Programming
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney
    In AAAI/IAAI, 1050-1055, Portland, OR, August 1996. AAAI Press/MIT Press.
    This paper presents recent work using the CHILL parser acquisition system to automate the construction of a natural-language interface for database queries. CHILL treats parser acquisition as the learning of search-control rules within a logic program representing a shift-reduce parser and uses techniques from Inductive Logic Programming to learn relational control knowledge. Starting with a general framework for constructing a suitable logical form, CHILL is able to train on a corpus comprising sentences paired with database queries and induce parsers that map subsequent sentences directly into executable queries. Experimental results with a complete database-query application for U.S. geography show that CHILL is able to learn parsers that outperform a pre-existing, hand-crafted counterpart. These results demonstrate the ability of a corpus-based system to produce more than purely syntactic representations. They also provide direct evidence of the utility of an empirical approach at the level of a complete natural language application.
    ML ID: 66
  31. Multi-Strategy Learning of Search Control for Partial-Order Planning
    [Details] [PDF]
    Tara A. Estlin and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-96), 843-848, Portland, OR, August 1996.
    Most research in planning and learning has involved linear, state-based planners. This paper presents SCOPE, a system for learning search-control rules that improve the performance of a partial-order planner. SCOPE integrates explanation-based and inductive learning techniques to acquire control rules for a partial-order planner. Learned rules are in the form of selection heuristics that help the planner choose between competing plan refinements. Specifically, SCOPE learns domain-specific control rules for a version of the UCPOP planning algorithm. The resulting system is shown to produce significant speedup in two different planning domains.
    ML ID: 63
  32. Integrating EBL and ILP to Acquire Control Rules for Planning
    [Details] [PDF]
    Tara A. Estlin and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Multi-Strategy Learning (MSL-96), 271--279, Harpers Ferry, WV, May 1996.
    Most approaches to learning control information in planning systems use explanation-based learning to generate control rules. Unfortunately, EBL alone often produces overly complex rules that actually decrease planning efficiency. This paper presents a novel learning approach for control knowledge acquisition that integrates explanation-based learning with techniques from inductive logic programming. EBL is used to constrain an inductive search for selection heuristics that help a planner choose between competing plan refinements. SCOPE is one of the few systems to address learning control information in the newer partial-order planners. Specifically, SCOPE learns domain-specific control rules for a version of the UCPOP planning algorithm. The resulting system is shown to produce significant speedup in two different planning domains.
    ML ID: 60
  33. Advantages of Decision Lists and Implicit Negative in Inductive Logic Programming
    [Details] [PDF]
    Mary Elaine Califf and Raymond J. Mooney
    Technical Report, Artificial Intelligence Lab, University of Texas at Austin, January 1996.
    This paper demonstrates the capabilities of FOIDL, an inductive logic programming (ILP) system whose distinguishing characteristics are the ability to produce first-order decision lists, the use of an output completeness assumption to provide implicit negative examples, and the use of intensional background knowledge. The development of FOIDL was originally motivated by the problem of learning to generate the past tense of English verbs; however, this paper demonstrates its superior performance on two different sets of benchmark ILP problems. Tests on the finite element mesh design problem show that FOIDL's decision lists enable it to produce better results than all other ILP systems whose results on this problem have been reported. Tests with a selection of list-processing problems from Bratko's introductory Prolog text demonstrate t hat the combination of implicit negatives and intensionality allow FOIDL to learn correct programs from far fewer examples than FOIL.
    ML ID: 55
  34. Comparative Results on Using Inductive Logic Programming for Corpus-based Parser Construction
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Stefan Wermter and Ellen Riloff and Gabriela Scheler, editors, Connectionist, Statistical, and Symbolic Approaches to Learning for Natural Language Processing, 355-369, Berlin, 1996. Springer.
    This paper presents results from recent experiments with CHILL, a corpus-based parser acquisition system. CHILL treats language acquisition as the learning of search-control rules within a logic program. Unlike many current corpus-based approaches that use statistical learning algorithms, CHILL uses techniques from inductive logic programming (ILP) to learn relational representations. CHILL is a very flexible system and has been used to learn parsers that produce syntactic parse trees, case-role analyses, and executable database queries. The reported experiments compare CHILL's performance to that of a more naive application of ILP to parser acquisition. The results show that ILP techniques, as employed in CHILL, are a viable alternative to statistical methods and that the control-rule framework is fundamental to CHILL's success.
    ML ID: 54
  35. Learning the Past Tense of English Verbs Using Inductive Logic Programming
    [Details] [PDF]
    Raymond J. Mooney and Mary Elaine Califf
    In {S. Wermter, E. Riloff} and G. Scheler, editors, Connectionist, Statistical, and Symbolic Approaches to Learning for Natural Language Processing, 370-384, Berlin, 1996. Springer.
    This paper presents results on using a new inductive logic programming method called FOIDL to learn the past tense of English verbs. The past tense task has been widely studied in the context of the symbolic/connectionist debate. Previous papers have presented results using various neural-network and decision-tree learning methods. We have developed a technique for learning a special type of Prolog program called a first-order decision list, defined as an ordered list of clauses each ending in a cut. FOIDL is based on FOIL (Quinlan, 1990) but employs intensional background knowledge and avoids the need for explicit negative examples. It is particularly useful for problems that involve rules with specific exceptions, such as the past-tense task. We present results showing that FOIDL learns a more accurate past-tense generator from significantly fewer examples than all other previous methods.
    ML ID: 53
  36. Inducing Logic Programs without Explicit Negative Examples
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle, Cynthia A. Thompson, Mary Elaine Califf, and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Inductive Logic Programming (ILP-95), 403-416, Leuven, Belgium, 1995.
    This paper presents a method for learning logic programs without explicit negative examples by exploiting an assumption of output completeness. A mode declaration is supplied for the target predicate and each training input is assumed to be accompanied by all of its legal outputs. Any other outputs generated by an incomplete program implicitly represent negative examples; however, large numbers of ground negative examples never need to be generated. This method has been incorporated into two ILP systems, CHILLIN and IFOIL, both of which use intensional background knowledge. Tests on two natural language acquisition tasks, case-role mapping and past-tense learning, illustrate the advantages of the approach.
    ML ID: 50
  37. Using Inductive Logic Programming to Automate the Construction of Natural Language Parsers
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle
    PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 1995.
    Designing computer systems to understand natural language input is a difficult task. In recent years there has been considerable interest in corpus-based methods for constructing natural language parsers. These empirical approaches replace hand-crafted grammars with linguistic models acquired through automated training over language corpora. A common thread among such methods to date is the use of propositional or probablistic representations for the learned knowledge. This dissertation presents an alternative approach based on techniques from a subfield of machine learning known as inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP, which investigates the learning of relational (first-order) rules, provides an empirical method for acquiring knowledge within traditional, symbolic parsing frameworks.

    This dissertation details the architecture, implementation and evaluation of CHILL a computer system for acquiring natural language parsers by training over corpora of parsed text. CHILL treats language acquisition as the learning of search-control rules within a logic program that implements a shift-reduce parser. Control rules are induced using a novel ILP algorithm which handles difficult issues arising in the induction of search-control heuristics. Both the control-rule framework and the induction algorithm are crucial to CHILL's success.

    The main advantage of CHILL over propositional counterparts is its flexibility in handling varied representations. CHILL has produced parsers for various analyses including case-role mapping, detailed syntactic parse trees, and a logical form suitable for expressing first-order database queries. All of these tasks are accomplished within the same framework, using a single, general learning method that can acquire new syntactic and semantic categories for resolving ambiguities.

    Experimental evidence from both aritificial and real-world corpora demonstrate that CHILL learns parsers as well or better than previous artificial neural network or probablistic approaches on comparable tasks. In the database query domain, which goes beyond the scope of previous empirical approaches, the learned parser outperforms an existing hand-crafted system. These results support the claim that ILP techniques as implemented in CHILL represent a viable alternative with significant potential advantages over neural-network, propositional, and probablistic approaches to empirical parser construction.

    ML ID: 48
  38. A Comparison of Two Methods Employing Inductive Logic Programming for Corpus-based Parser Constuction
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Working Notes of the IJCAI-95 Workshop on New Approaches to Learning for Natural Language Processing, 79--86, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 1995.
    This paper presents results from recent experiments with CHILL, a corpus-based parser acquisition system. CHILL treats grammar acquisition as the learning of search-control rules within a logic program. Unlike many current corpus-based approaches that use propositional or probabilistic learning algorithms, CHILL uses techniques from inductive logic programming (ILP) to learn relational representations. The reported experiments compare CHILL's performance to that of a more naive application of ILP to parser acquisition. The results show that ILP techniques, as employed in CHILL, are a viable alternative to propositional methods and that the control-rule framework is fundamental to CHILL's success.
    ML ID: 47
  39. Induction of First-Order Decision Lists: Results on Learning the Past Tense of English Verbs
    [Details] [PDF]
    Raymond J. Mooney and Mary Elaine Califf
    Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 3:1-24, 1995.
    This paper presents a method for inducing logic programs from examples that learns a new class of concepts called first-order decision lists, defined as ordered lists of clauses each ending in a cut. The method, called FOIDL, is based on FOIL but employs intensional background knowledge and avoids the need for explicit negative examples. It is particularly useful for problems that involve rules with specific exceptions, such as learning the past-tense of English verbs, a task widely studied in the context of the symbolic/connectionist debate. FOIDL is able to learn concise, accurate programs for this problem from significantly fewer examples than previous methods (both connectionist and symbolic).
    ML ID: 44
  40. Automated Refinement of First-Order Horn-Clause Domain Theories
    [Details] [PDF]
    Bradley L. Richards and Raymond J. Mooney
    Machine Learning, 19(2):95-131, 1995.
    Knowledge acquisition is a difficult and time-consuming task, and as error-prone as any human activity. The task of automatically improving an existing knowledge base using learning methods is addressed by a new class of systems performing theory refinement. Until recently, such systems were limited to propositional theories. This paper presents a system, FORTE (First-Order Revision of Theories from Examples), for refining first-order Horn-clause theories. Moving to a first-order representation opens many new problem areas, such as logic program debugging and qualitative modelling, that are beyond the reach of propositional systems. FORTE uses a hill-climbing approach to revise theories. It identifies possible errors in the theory and calls on a library of operators to develop possible revisions. The best revision is implemented, and the process repeats until no further revisions are possible. Operators are drawn from a variety of sources, including propositional theory refinement, first-order induction, and inverse resolution. FORTE has been tested in several domains including logic programming and qualitative modelling.
    ML ID: 43
  41. Combining Top-Down And Bottom-Up Techniques In Inductive Logic Programming
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle, Raymond J. Mooney, and Joshua B. Konvisser
    In Proceedings of the Eleventh International Workshop on Machine Learning (ML-94), 343--351, Rutgers, NJ, July 1994.
    This paper describes a new method for inducing logic programs from examples which attempts to integrate the best aspects of existing ILP methods into a single coherent framework. In particular, it combines a bottom-up method similar to GOLEM with a top-down method similar to FOIL. It also includes a method for predicate invention similar to CHAMP and an elegant solution to the ``noisy oracle'' problem which allows the system to learn recursive programs without requiring a complete set of positive examples. Systematic experimental comparisons to both GOLEM and FOIL on a range of problems are used to clearly demonstrate the advantages of the approach.
    ML ID: 36
  42. Inducing Deterministic Prolog Parsers From Treebanks: A Machine Learning Approach
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-94), 748--753, Seattle, WA, July 1994.
    This paper presents a method for constructing deterministic, context-sensitive, Prolog parsers from corpora of parsed sentences. Our approach uses recent machine learning methods for inducing Prolog rules from examples (inductive logic programming). We discuss several advantages of this method compared to recent statistical methods and present results on learning complete parsers from portions of the ATIS corpus.
    ML ID: 35
  43. Integrating ILP and EBL
    [Details] [PDF]
    Raymond J. Mooney and John M. Zelle
    Sigart Bulletin (special issue on Inductive Logic Programmming), 5(1):12-21, 1994.
    This paper presents a review of recent work that integrates methods from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) and Explanation-Based Learning (EBL). ILP and EBL methods have complementary strengths and weaknesses and a number of recent projects have effectively combined them into systems with better performance than either of the individual approaches. In particular, integrated systems have been developed for guiding induction with prior knowledge (ML-SMART, FOCL, GRENDEL) refining imperfect domain theories (FORTE, AUDREY, Rx), and learning effective search-control knowledge (AxA-EBL, DOLPHIN).
    ML ID: 30
  44. Combining FOIL and EBG to Speed-Up Logic Programs
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 1106-1111, 1993. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
    This paper presents an algorithm that combines traditional EBL techniques and recent developments in inductive logic programming to learn effective clause selection rules for Prolog programs. When these control rules are incorporated into the original program, significant speed-up may be achieved. The algorithm is shown to be an improvement over competing EBL approaches in several domains. Additionally, the algorithm is capable of automatically transforming some intractable algorithms into ones that run in polynomial time.
    ML ID: 27
  45. Learning Semantic Grammars With Constructive Inductive Logic Programming
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the 11th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 817-822, 1993. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.
    Automating the construction of semantic grammars is a difficult and interesting problem for machine learning. This paper shows how the semantic-grammar acquisition problem can be viewed as the learning of search-control heuristics in a logic program. Appropriate control rules are learned using a new first-order induction algorithm that automatically invents useful syntactic and semantic categories. Empirical results show that the learned parsers generalize well to novel sentences and out-perform previous approaches based on connectionist techniques.
    ML ID: 25
  46. Speeding-up Logic Programs by Combining EBG and FOIL
    [Details] [PDF]
    John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the 1992 Machine Learning Workshop on Knowledge Compilation and Speedup Learning, Aberdeen, Scotland, July 1992.
    This paper presents an algorithm that combines traditional EBL techniques and recent developments in inductive logic programming to learn effective clause selection rules for Prolog programs. When these control rules are incorporated into the original program, significant speed-up may be achieved. The algorithm produces not only EBL-like speed up of problem solvers, but is capable of automatically transforming some intractable algorithms into ones that run in polynomial time.
    ML ID: 18
  47. Learning Relations by Pathfinding
    [Details] [PDF]
    Bradley L. Richards and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Tenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-92), 50-55, San Jose, CA, July 1992.
    First-order learning systems (e.g., FOIL, FOCL, FORTE) generally rely on hill-climbing heuristics in order to avoid the combinatorial explosion inherent in learning first-order concepts. However, hill-climbing leaves these systems vulnerable to local maxima and local plateaus. We present a method, called relational pathfinding, which has proven highly effective in escaping local maxima and crossing local plateaus. We present our algorithm and provide learning results in two domains: family relationships and qualitative model building.
    ML ID: 15
  48. First-Order Theory Revision
    [Details] [PDF]
    Bradley L. Richards and Raymond J. Mooney
    In Proceedings of the Eighth International Machine Learning Workshop, pp. 447-451, Evanston, IL, June 1991.
    Recent learning systems have combined explanation-based and inductive learning techniques to revise propositional domain theories (e.g. EITHER, RTLS, KBANN). Inductive systems working in first order logic have also been developed (e.g. CIGOL, FOIL, FOCL). This paper presents a theory revision system, Forte, that merges these two developments. Forte provides theory revision capabilities similar to those of the propositional systems, but works with domain theories stated in first-order logic.
    ML ID: 256