Bayesian networks provide a mathematically sound formalism for representing and reasoning with uncertain knowledge and are as such widely used. However, acquiring and capturing knowledge in this framework is difficult. There is a growing interest in formulating techniques for learning Bayesian networks inductively. While the problem of learning a Bayesian network, given complete data, has been explored in some depth, the problem of learning networks with unobserved causes is still open. In this proposal, we view this problem from the perspective of theory revision and present a novel approach which adapts techniques developed for revising theories in symbolic and connectionist representations. Thus, we assume that the learner is given an initial approximate network (usually obtained from a expert). Our technique inductively revises the network to fit the data better. Our proposed system has two components: one component revises the parameters of a Bayesian network of known structure, and the other component revises the structure of the network. The component for parameter revision maps the given Bayesian network into a multi-layer feedforward neural network, with the parameters mapped to weights in the neural network, and uses standard backpropagation techniques to learn the weights. The structure revision component uses qualitative analysis to suggest revisions to the network when it fails to predict the data accurately. The first component has been implemented and we will present results from experiments on real world classification problems which show our technique to be effective. We will also discuss our proposed structure revision algorithm, our plans for experiments to evaluate the system, as well as some extensions to the system.
ML ID: 51
This paper presents a method for learning logic programs without explicit negative examples by exploiting an assumption of output completeness. A mode declaration is supplied for the target predicate and each training input is assumed to be accompanied by all of its legal outputs. Any other outputs generated by an incomplete program implicitly represent negative examples; however, large numbers of ground negative examples never need to be generated. This method has been incorporated into two ILP systems, CHILLIN and IFOIL, both of which use intensional background knowledge. Tests on two natural language acquisition tasks, case-role mapping and past-tense learning, illustrate the advantages of the approach.
ML ID: 50
As systems like chemical plants, power plants, and automobiles get more complex, online diagnostic systems are becomingly increasingly important. One of the ways to rein in the complexity of describing and reasoning about large systems such as these is to describe them using qualitative rather than quantitative models.
Model-based diagnosis is a class of diagnostic techniques that use direct knowledge about how a system functions instead of expert rules detailing causes for every possible set of symptons of a broken system. Our research builds on standard methods for model-based diagnosis and extends them to the domain of complex dynamic systems described using qualitative models.
We motivate and describe out algorithm for diagnosing faults in a dynamic system given a qualitative model and a sequence of qualitative states. The main contributions in this algorithm include a method for propagating dependencies while solving a general constraint satisfaction problem, and a method for verfying the compatibility of a behavior with a model across time. The algorithm can diagnose multiple faults and uses models of faulty behavior, or behavioral modes.
We then demonstrate these techniques using an implemented program called QDOCS and test it on some realistic problems. Through our experiments with a model of the reaction control system (RCS) of the space shuttle and with a level-controller for a reaction tank, we show that QDOCS demonstrates the best balance of generality, accuracy and efficiency among known systems.
ML ID: 49
Designing computer systems to understand natural language input is a difficult task. In recent years there has been considerable interest in corpus-based methods for constructing natural language parsers. These empirical approaches replace hand-crafted grammars with linguistic models acquired through automated training over language corpora. A common thread among such methods to date is the use of propositional or probablistic representations for the learned knowledge. This dissertation presents an alternative approach based on techniques from a subfield of machine learning known as inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP, which investigates the learning of relational (first-order) rules, provides an empirical method for acquiring knowledge within traditional, symbolic parsing frameworks.
This dissertation details the architecture, implementation and evaluation of CHILL a computer system for acquiring natural language parsers by training over corpora of parsed text. CHILL treats language acquisition as the learning of search-control rules within a logic program that implements a shift-reduce parser. Control rules are induced using a novel ILP algorithm which handles difficult issues arising in the induction of search-control heuristics. Both the control-rule framework and the induction algorithm are crucial to CHILL's success.
The main advantage of CHILL over propositional counterparts is its flexibility in handling varied representations. CHILL has produced parsers for various analyses including case-role mapping, detailed syntactic parse trees, and a logical form suitable for expressing first-order database queries. All of these tasks are accomplished within the same framework, using a single, general learning method that can acquire new syntactic and semantic categories for resolving ambiguities.
Experimental evidence from both aritificial and real-world corpora demonstrate that CHILL learns parsers as well or better than previous artificial neural network or probablistic approaches on comparable tasks. In the database query domain, which goes beyond the scope of previous empirical approaches, the learned parser outperforms an existing hand-crafted system. These results support the claim that ILP techniques as implemented in CHILL represent a viable alternative with significant potential advantages over neural-network, propositional, and probablistic approaches to empirical parser construction.
ML ID: 48
This paper presents results from recent experiments with CHILL, a corpus-based parser acquisition system. CHILL treats grammar acquisition as the learning of search-control rules within a logic program. Unlike many current corpus-based approaches that use propositional or probabilistic learning algorithms, CHILL uses techniques from inductive logic programming (ILP) to learn relational representations. The reported experiments compare CHILL's performance to that of a more naive application of ILP to parser acquisition. The results show that ILP techniques, as employed in CHILL, are a viable alternative to propositional methods and that the control-rule framework is fundamental to CHILL's success.
ML ID: 47
This paper describes an approach to diagnosis of systems described by qualitative differential equations represented as QSIM models. An implemented system QDOCS is described that performs multiple-fault, fault-model based diagnosis, using constraint satisfaction techniques, of qualitative behaviors of systems described by such models. We demonstrate the utility of this system by accurately diagnosing randomly generated faults using simulated behaviors of a portion of the Reaction Control System of the space shuttle.
ML ID: 46
A system, WOLFIE, that acquires a mapping of words to their semantic representation is presented and a preliminary evaluation is performed. Tree least general generalizations (TLGGs) of the representations of input sentences are performed to assist in determining the representations of individual words in the sentences. The best guess for a meaning of a word is the TLGG which overlaps with the highest percentage of sentence representations in which that word appears. Some promising experimental results on a non-artificial data set are presented.
ML ID: 45
This paper presents a method for inducing logic programs from examples that learns a new class of concepts called first-order decision lists, defined as ordered lists of clauses each ending in a cut. The method, called FOIDL, is based on FOIL but employs intensional background knowledge and avoids the need for explicit negative examples. It is particularly useful for problems that involve rules with specific exceptions, such as learning the past-tense of English verbs, a task widely studied in the context of the symbolic/connectionist debate. FOIDL is able to learn concise, accurate programs for this problem from significantly fewer examples than previous methods (both connectionist and symbolic).
ML ID: 44
Knowledge acquisition is a difficult and time-consuming task, and as error-prone as any human activity. The task of automatically improving an existing knowledge base using learning methods is addressed by a new class of systems performing theory refinement. Until recently, such systems were limited to propositional theories. This paper presents a system, FORTE (First-Order Revision of Theories from Examples), for refining first-order Horn-clause theories. Moving to a first-order representation opens many new problem areas, such as logic program debugging and qualitative modelling, that are beyond the reach of propositional systems. FORTE uses a hill-climbing approach to revise theories. It identifies possible errors in the theory and calls on a library of operators to develop possible revisions. The best revision is implemented, and the process repeats until no further revisions are possible. Operators are drawn from a variety of sources, including propositional theory refinement, first-order induction, and inverse resolution. FORTE has been tested in several domains including logic programming and qualitative modelling.
ML ID: 43
This paper presents results comparing three inductive learning systems using different representations for concepts, namely: CNF formulae, DNF formulae, and decision trees. The CNF learner performs surprisingly well. Results on five natural data sets show that it frequently trains faster and produces more accurate and simpler concepts. The probable explanation for its superior performance is that the other systems are more susceptible to the replication problem.
ML ID: 42
This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the sample complexity of theory revision within the framework of PAC (Probably Approximately Correct) learnability theory. By formalizing the notion that the initial theory is ``close'' to the correct theory we show that the sample complexity of an optimal propositional Horn-clause theory revision algorithm is $O( ( ln 1 / delta + d ln (s_0 + d + n) ) / epsilon)$, where $d$ is the syntactic distance between the initial and correct theories, $s_0$ is the size of initial theory, $n$ is the number of observable features, and $epsilon$ and $delta$ are the standard PAC error and probability bounds. The paper also discusses the problems raised by the computational complexity of theory revision.
ML ID: 41