We want the internal representation of a graph to be one that can be efficiently manipulated.
If the external representation of a node is a string, such as a city name, we can use a Map or symbol table to map it to an internal representation such as:
A graph is called dense if |E| = O(|V|2); if |E| is less, the graph is called sparse .
All real-world graphs are sparse unless they are small.
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