** Associative and Commutative**

An operation *°* is * associative*
if *a ° ( b ° c) = ( a ° b ) ° c*.

An operation *°* is * commutative*
if *a ° b = b ° a*.

If an operation *°* is * both* associative and
commutative, then the arguments of the operation can be
in any order, and the result will be the same. For example,
the arguments of integer ` +` can be in any order.

This gives great freedom to process the arguments of a function independently on multiple processors.

In many cases, parts of the operation (e.g. partial sums) can be done independently as well.