CS 343: Midterm Study Guide

Topics Covered in Class:

1. State Space Search: Definition of State Space; breadth-first, depth-first, bounded depth-first searches: algorithms, comparisons, advantages, disadvantages; iterative deepening; uniform-cost search; heuristic search: functions f, g, h and their meanings; A* algorithm; admissability of A*; IDA*; hill climbing.
2. Problem Reduction Search: definition; comparison to state space search; AND/OR graph; solution to an AND/OR graph.
3. Descriptions of games with AND/OR graphs: game tree; static evaluation function; depth bound; minimax position evaluation: rationale and comparison to static evaluation; be able to do a minimax evaluation of a given game tree. Alpha/beta search: advantages, comparison to plain minimax search; be able to show alpha/beta search on a given game tree.
4. GPS (General Problem Solver): how it works; differences; table of connections; means/ends analysis.
5. Heuristic Dendral: what it does; the state space; how is the state space reduced?
6. Symbolic algebraic manipulation: examples, uses; representation of formulas in Lisp.
7. Propositional Logic: well-formed formulas (wffs); interpretations; truth/falsity under an interpretation; valid, invalid, consistent, inconsistent, satisfiable, unsatisfiable; equivalence of formulas; backward chaining, forward chaining, resolution for propositional calculus.
8. Predicate Calculus: well formed formula; Skolemization; clause form; ground instance; substitution; unification; resolution for predicate calculus; unit preference; set of support; natural deduction, forward chaining, backward chaining; Horn clauses; STRIPS: components of a STRIPS operator, how operators are chosen.

Vocabulary

 A* algorithm add list admissible algebraic simplification alpha/beta search AND node AND/OR graph assert atom or atomic formula average branching factor backward chaining backward search beam search blind search Boolean satisfiability (SAT) bounded depth-first box branching factor breadth-first clause closed list closed world assumption (CWA) combinatoric explosion complete conjunctive normal form (CNF) consistent constant constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) credit assignment problem decidable deduction delete list depth bound depth-first diameter difference effective branching factor entail evaluation function expand a node first-order logic fluent forward chaining frame problem game tree genetic algorithm goal state GPS ground instance heuristic function heuristic search hill climbing Horn clause IDA* inconsistent interpretation invalid iterative deepening literal local maxima logical consequence minimax model model checking modus ponens negation as failure non-monotonic logic open list operator OR node pattern matching ply precondition predicate predicate calculus primitive subproblem problem reduction search propositional logic quantifier representation hypothesis resolvent retract rewrite rule set of support Skolem constant Skolem function Skolemization sound start state state space static evaluation function steepest ascent STRIPS operator subproblem substitution symbolic manipulation table of connections tautology term truth maintenance system (TMS) truth table Turing test unification algorithm unifier uniform cost search unit clause unit preference unsatisfiable valid well-formed formula (wff)