Krueger's Survey of Software Reuse [ Krueger, Charles W., ``Software Reuse'', ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 24, no. 2 (June 1992), pp. 131-184.]

Krueger emphasizes cognitive distance: the difference between the problem and the expression of the problem in the programming formalism. Cognitive distance is a rough estimate of the intellectual effort required to use an approach.

Emphasis on cognitive distance recognizes an important fact:

Programming is an activity performed by humans.

Cognitive distance is reduced in two ways:

  1. Abstractions in the reuse technique make it easier to go from a concept of the system to representation in the reuse technique.

  2. Automation reduces the effort to get from the abstract representation to executable code.

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