The soccer server provides a challenging communication environment for teams of agents. With a single, low-bandwidth, unreliable communication channel for all 22 agents and limited communication range and capacity, agents must not rely on any particular message reaching any particular teammate. Nonetheless, when a message does get through, it can help distribute information about the state of the world as well as helping to facilitate team coordination.
All CMUnited-98 messages include a certain amount of state information from the speaker's perspective. Information regarding object position and teammate roles are all given along with the confidence values associated with this data. All teammates hearing the message can then use the information to augment their visual state information.
The principle functional uses of communication in CMUnited-98 are
For a detailed specification of the communication paradigm as it was first developed for CMUnited-97, see .