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Teamwork Structure Results


The flexible teamwork structure improves over a rigid structure by way of three characteristics: flexible positioning within roles, set-plays, and changeable formations. We tested the benefits of the first two characteristics by playing a team with flexible, changeable positions and set-plays against a ``default team'' with rigid positions and no set-plays. The behaviors of the players on the two teams are otherwise identical. The advantage of being able to change formations--the third characteristic--depends on the formation being used by the opponent. Therefore, we tested teams using each defined formation against each other.

Standard games in the soccer server system last 10 minutes. However, due to the large amount of noise, game results vary greatly. All reported results are cumulative over several games. Compiled statistics include the number of 10-minute games won, the total cumulative goals scored by each team, average goals per game, and the percentage of time that the ball was in each half of the field. The last statistic gives a rough estimate of the degree to which each team was able to control the ball.

Peter Stone
Thu Dec 17 15:26:44 EST 1998