Peter Stone's Selected Publications

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FLECS: Planning with a Flexible Commitment Strategy

Manuela Veloso and Peter Stone. FLECS: Planning with a Flexible Commitment Strategy. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 3:25–52, June 1995.
Available from journal's web page.

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Abstract

There has been evidence that least-commitment planners can efficiently handle planning problems that involve difficult goal interactions. This evidence has led to the common belief that delayed-commitment is the "best" possible planning strategy. However, we recently found evidence that eager-commitment planners can handle a variety of planning problems more efficiently, in particular those with difficult operator choices. Resigned to the futility of trying to find a universally successful planning strategy, we devised a planner that can be used to study which domains and problems are best for which planning strategies. In this article we introduce this new planning algorithm, FLECS, which uses a FLExible Commitment Strategy with respect to plan-step orderings. It is able to use any strategy from delayed-commitment to eager-commitment. The combination of delayed and eager operator-ordering commitments allows FLECS to take advantage of the benefits of explicitly using a simulated execution state and reasoning about planning constraints. FLECS can vary its commitment strategy across different problems and domains, and also during the course of a single planning problem. FLECS represents a novel contribution to planning in that it explicitly provides the choice of which commitment strategy to use while planning. FLECS provides a framework to investigate the mapping from planning domains and problems to efficient planning strategies.

BibTeX Entry

@Article(jair-flecs,
        Author="Manuela Veloso and Peter Stone",
        Title="{FLECS}: {P}lanning with a Flexible Commitment Strategy",
        Journal="Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research",
        Volume="3", pages={25--52},
        Month="June", Year="1995",
        abstract={
                  There has been evidence that least-commitment
                  planners can efficiently handle planning problems
                  that involve difficult goal interactions. This
                  evidence has led to the common belief that
                  delayed-commitment is the "best" possible planning
                  strategy. However, we recently found evidence that
                  eager-commitment planners can handle a variety of
                  planning problems more efficiently, in particular
                  those with difficult operator choices. Resigned to
                  the futility of trying to find a universally
                  successful planning strategy, we devised a planner
                  that can be used to study which domains and problems
                  are best for which planning strategies. In this
                  article we introduce this new planning algorithm,
                  FLECS, which uses a FLExible Commitment Strategy
                  with respect to plan-step orderings. It is able to
                  use any strategy from delayed-commitment to
                  eager-commitment. The combination of delayed and
                  eager operator-ordering commitments allows FLECS to
                  take advantage of the benefits of explicitly using a
                  simulated execution state and reasoning about
                  planning constraints. FLECS can vary its commitment
                  strategy across different problems and domains, and
                  also during the course of a single planning
                  problem. FLECS represents a novel contribution to
                  planning in that it explicitly provides the choice
                  of which commitment strategy to use while
                  planning. FLECS provides a framework to investigate
                  the mapping from planning domains and problems to
                  efficient planning strategies.
        },
        wwwnote = {Available from <a href="http://www.jair.org/papers/paper131.html">journal's web page</a>.},
)

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