Advanced Operating Systems

Note: new location! Class will be held in GDC 6.516 for the rest of the semester.

(Piazza course site). (Review template, In-class presentations,) Note that numbered entries in the non-required reading section are highly encouraged.

Date Topic Assignments Reading Non-required Reading
Wed 01/18 Course Intro

HW 1 out

1) How (and How Not) to Write a Good Systems Paper (Levin and Redell, SIGOPS OSR, 1983)

You and Your Research(Hamming 1986)

Mon 01/23 Correctness

HW1 in-class quiz

1) Medical Devices, The Therac-25 (Levinson, Safeware: System Safety and Computers, 1995)
2) The Rise of Worse is Better (Richard Gabriel, Lisp: Good News, Bad News, How to Win Big, 1989)
3) On Being the Right Size (Haldane, 1928)

The Wrong Patient (Chassin and Becher, American College of Physicians - American Society of Internal Medicine, 2002)
Radiation Offers New Cures, and Ways to Do Harm (New York Times 2010 flash animation)
The Task of the Referee (Smith)

Wed 01/25 OS Design

1) The UNIX Timesharing System (Ritchie and Thompson, SOSP, 1974)  lecture slides other notes
2) Exokernel: An Operating System Architecture for Application-Level Resource Management (Engler, Kaashoek, and O'Toole Jr., SOSP, 1995)  lecture slides  other notes

1) The Linux Edge (Linus Torvalds, Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 1999)
Singularity: Rethinking the Software Stack (Hunt and Larus, SIGOPS OSR, 2007)
THE (Dijkstra, 1968)
Application performance and Flexibility on Exokernel Systems (Kaashoek, Engler, Ganger, Briceno, Hunt, Mazieres, Pinckney, Grimm, Jannotti, and Mackenzie, SOSP, 1997)
On Micro-Kernel Construction (Liedtke, SOSP, 1995)  notes

Mon 01/30 OS Design

1) End-to-end Arguments in System Design -- (through page 4) -- (Saltzer, Reed, and Clark, TOCS, 1984)  lecture slides  other notes
2) Threads and Input/Output in the Synthesis Kernel (Massalin and Pu, SOSP, 1989)  lecture slides  other notes

Chapter 6 from Massalin's Thesis (1992)
Protection and the Control of Information Sharing in Multics (Saltzer, 1974)

Wed 02/01 mmap + page faults

Lab 0 due

Understanding the Linux Kernel (3rd Edition) Chapter 9, Process Address Space (skim) lecture slides
1) Practical, transparent operating system support for superpages (Navarro, Iyer, Druschel, and Cox, OSDI, 2002)

Coordinated and Efficient Huge Page Management with Ingens
Machine-Independent Virtual Memory Management for Paged Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor Architectures (Rashid, Tevanian, Young, Golub, Baron, Black, Bolosky, and Chew, 1987)

Mon 02/06 Virtual machines

1) Xen and Art of Virtualization (Barham, Dragovic, Fraser, Hand, Harris, Ho, Neugebaur, Pratt and Warfield, SOSP 2003).  lecture notes  other notes
2) Are Virtual Machine Monitors Microkernels Done Right? (Hand, Warfield, Fraser, Kotsovinos, and Magenheimer, HotOS 2005)
3) Are Virtual Machine Monitors Microkernels Done Right? (Heiser, Uhlig, and LeVasseur, SIGOPS OSR, 2006)

Intel Virtualization Technology (Uhlig, Neiger, Rodgers, Santoni, Martins, Anderson, Bennett, Kagi, Leung, and Smith, IEEE Computer 2005)
Intel Virtualization Technology (journal version) (Neiger, Santoni, Leung, Rodgers, Uhlig, Intel Technology Journal 2006)

Wed 02/08 Virtual machines

1) Memory Resource Management in VMware ESX Server (Waldspurger, OSDI, 2002)  lecture slides  other notes
2) Arrakis: The Operating System is the Control Plane (Peter, Li, Zhang, Ports, Woos, Krishnamurthy, Anderson, Roscoe. OSDI, 2014)  notes

The Turtles Project: Design and Implementation of Nested Virtualization (Ben-Yehuda, Day, Dubitzky, Factor, Har’El, Gordon, Liguoriz, Wasserman, Yassour, OSDI 2010)
Unix as an Application Process (Golub, USENIX, 1990)
Compatibility is not transparency VMM detection myths and realities (Garfinkel, Adams, Warfield, and Franklin, HOTOS, 2007)
Disco: Running Commodity Operating Systems on Scalable Multiprocessors (Bugnion, Devine, and Rosenblum, SOSP, 1997)  notes

Mon 02/13 Lightweight Virtualization

1) Rethinking the Library OS from the Top Down (Porter, Boyd-Wickizer, Howell, Olinsky, and Hunt, ASPLOS 2011)  lecture slides
2) Jistu: just-in-time summoning of unikernels (Madhavapeddy, Leonard, Skjegstad, Gazagnaire, Sheets, Scott, Mortier, Chaudhry, Singh, Ludlam, Crowcroft, Leslie, NSDI 2015)

Dune: Safe User-level Access to Privileged CPU Features (Belay, Bittau, Mashtizadeh, Terei, Mazieres, Kozyrakis, OSDI 2012)

Wed 02/15 File systems

Lab 1 due

Understanding the Linux Kernel (3rd Edition) Chapter 9, Process Address Space (skim)
1) Crash Consistency: FSCK and Journaling (Chapter 42 in Operating Systems: Three Easy Pieces) (R. Arpaci-Dusseau, A. Arpaci-Dusseau)
2) A Fast File System for UNIX (McKusick, Joy, Leffler, and Fabry, TOCS, 1984) lecture slides other notes

Disks from the Perspective of a File System (Marshall Kirk McKusick, ACM Queue, 2012)
Improving the Performance of fsck in FreeBSD (Marshall Kirk McKusick 2013)

Mon 02/20 File systems

1) The Design and Implementation of a Log-Structured File System (Rosenblum and Ousterhout, TOCS, 1992) lecture slides  other notes
2) Ousterhout's critique of Seltzer's 1993 paper
3) Ousterhout's critique of Seltzer's 1995 paper
4) Seltzer's response to Ousterhout's critiques
5) Ousterhout's response to Seltzer
6) Log structured file systems: There's one in every SSD (Valerie Aurora (formerly Henson)) LWN 2009)

An Introduction to Disk Drive Modeling (Ruemmler and Wilkes, 1994)
Soft Updates: A Technique for Eliminating Most Synchronous Writes in the Fast Filesystem (McKusick and Ganger, USENIX, 1999)
Generalized File System Dependences (Frost, Mammarella, Kohler, de los Reyes, Hovsepian, Matsuoka, and Zhang, SOSP 2007)

Wed 02/22 Networked file systems

1) Design and Implementation of the SUN Network Filesystem (Sandberg, Goldberg, Kleiman, Walsh, and Lyon, USENIX, 1985)  lecture slides  other notes

XDR: External Data Representation Standard (M. Eisler, Ed., RFC 4506, 2006) pdf txt
Remote Procedure Calls (Birrell and Nelson, TOCS, 1984)  notes

Mon 02/27 Data center file systems

1) The Google File System (Ghemawat, Gobioff, and Leung, SOSP, 2003)  lecture slides  other notes

1) GFS: Evolution on Fast-forward (McKusick and Quinlan, ACM Queue, 2009)

Wed 03/01 Guest lecture by Emmett Witchel

Lab 2 due

1) RaceTrack: Efficient Detection of Data Race Conditions via Adaptive Tracking (Yu, Rodeheffer, and Chen, SOSP, 2005) notes

Eraser: A Dynamic Data Race Detector for Multithreaded Programs (Savage, Burrows, Nelson, Sobalvarro, Anderson, TOCS, 1997)

Mon 03/06 Events and Threads

1) Experiences with Processes and Monitors in Mesa (Lampson and Redell, Communications of the ACM 23, 2, 1980)  lecture slides  notes

The "Double-Checked Locking is Broken" Declaration (Bacon, Bloch, Bogda, Click, Haahr, Lea, May, Maessen, Mitchell, Nilsen, Pugh, Sirer, 2004)
JSR 133 (Java Memory Model FAQ by Manson and Goetz, 2004)

Wed 03/08 Exam

Exam in class.  faux-quiz compilation

Mon 03/13 Spring break

Wed 03/15 Spring break

Mon 03/20 Events and Threads

1) Scheduler Activations (Anderson, Bershad, Lazowska, and Levy, TOCS, 1992)  lecture slides
2) Introduction to Non-blocking IO (Kegel 1999)
3) Exchange between Linus Torvalds and David Patterson about parallelism Part 1
4) Part 2
5) Part 3

Event-driven Programming for Robust Software (Dabek, Zeldovich, Kaashoek, Mazieres, and Morris, SIGOPS, 2002)
Why Events Are A Bad Idea (for high-concurrency servers) (von Behren, Condit, and Brewer, HOTOS, 2003)
Cooperative Task Management without Manual Stack Management Adya, Howell, Theimer, Bolosky, Douceur, USENIX 2002)

Wed 03/22 Concurrency & Transactions

Project Plan DUE

Ordering concurrent events and transactions in Principles of Transaction Processing (second edition by Philip A. Bernstein and Eric Newcomer 2009)  book notes
The Art of Multiprocessor Programming (Maurice Herlihy and Nir Shavit, 2008) 3-3.6  book notes  notes

Transaction Processing: Concepts and Techniques (Jim Gray and Andreas Reuter 1993) 1.1 - 1.2.5
4.2, 4.7 and 4.7.1, 4.9 and 4.9.1
The Transaction Concept (Gray, 1981)   notes

Mon 03/27 Guest Lecture by Vijay Chidambaram

1) Optimistic Crash Consistency (Vijay Chidambaram, Thanumalayan Sankaranarayana Pillai, Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau, SOSP 2013)

Wed 03/29 Concurrency & Transactions

Lab 3 due

1) Operating System Transactions (Porter, Hofmann, Rossbach, Benn, and Witchel, SOSP, 2009)  lecture slides

Experiences with transactions in QuickSilver (Shmuck and Wyllie, SOSP 1991)

Mon 04/03 Datacenter computing

Revised Project Plan DUE

1) MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters (Dean and Ghemawat, OSDI, 2004)  lecture slides
2) MapReduce: A Major Step Backwards (DeWitt and Stonebreaker, 2008)

A Comparison of Approaches to Large-Scale Data Analysis (Pavlo, Paulson, Rasin, Abadi, DeWitt, Madden, Stonebreaker, SIGMOD 2009)
BigTable: A system for Distributed Structured Storage (Chang, Dean, Ghemawat, Hsieh, Wallach, Burrows, Chandra, Fikes, and Gruber, OSDI, 2006) webnotes video
Large-scale Incremental Processing Using Distributed Transactions and Notifications (Peng and Dabek, OSDI 2010)
Brewer's CAP Theorem (Browne 2009)
Spanner: Google's Globally-Distributed Database (Corbett, Dean, Epstein, Fikes, Frost, Furman, Ghemawat, Gubarev, Heiser, Hochschild, Hsieh, Kanthak, Kogan, Li, Lloyd, Melnik, Mwaura, Nagle, Quinlan, Rao, Rolig, Saito, Szymaniak, Taylor, Wang and Woodford, OSDI, 2012)
Dynamo: Amazon’s Highly Avaiable Key-value Store
PNUTS: Yahoo!'s Hosted Data Serving Platform (Cooper, Ramakrishnan, Srivastava, Silberstein, Bohannon, Jacobsen, Puz, Weaver, Yereni, VLDB, 2008)

Wed 04/05 Scale and Programmability

1) Resilient Distributed Datasets: A Fault-Tolerant Abstraction for In-Memory Cluster Computing (Zaharia, Chowdhury, Das, Dave, Ma, McCauley, Franklin, Shenker, and Stoica, NSDI 2012)  lecture slides

DryadLINQ: a system for general-purpose distributed data-parallel computing using a high-level language (Yu, Isard, Fetterly, Budiu, Erlingsson, Gunda, Currey, OSDI 2008)

Mon 04/10 Scale and Programmability

1) Dandelion: a compiler and runtime for heterogeneous systems (Rossbach, Yu, Currey, Martin, Fetterly, SOSP 2013)  lecture slides

Tango: distributed data structures over a shared log (Balakrishnan, Malkhi, Wobber, Wu, Prabhakaran, Wei, Davis, Rao, Zou, Zuck, SOSP 2013)
Naiad: a timely dataflow system (Murray, McSherry, Isaacs, Isard, Barham, Abadi, SOSP 2013)

Wed 04/12 Heterogeneity

1) GPUfs: Integrating a file system with GPUs (Silberstein, Ford, Keidar, Witchel, ASPLOS 2013)  lecture slides

Helios: heterogeneous multiprocessing with satellite kernels (Nightingale, Hodson, McIlroy, Hawblitzel, Hunt, SOSP 2009)
Tapping into the fountain of CPUs: on operating system support for programmable devices (Weinsberg, Dolev, Anker, Ben-Yehuda, Wyckoff, ASPLOS 2008)
Pegasus: coordinated scheduling for virtualized accelerator-based systems (Gupta, Schwan, Tolia, Talwar, Ranganathan, ATC 2011)
TimeGraph: GPU scheduling for real-time multi-tasking environments
PTask: operating system abstractions to manage GPUs as compute devices (Rossbach, Currey, Silberstein, Ray, Witchel, SOSP 2011)

Mon 04/17 Non-volatile storage

1) Mnemosyne: Lightweight Persistent Memory (Volos, Tack, Swift, ASPLOS 2011)  lecture slides

Phase-Change Technology and the Future of Main Memory (Lee, Zhou, Zhao, Ipek, Mutlu, Burger, IEEE Micro Top Picks 2010)

Wed 04/19 Security

1) Adapting software fault isolation to contemporary CPU architectures (Sehr, Muth, Biffle, Khimenko, Pasko, Schimpf, Yee, Chen, 2010)
2) 17 Mistakes Microsoft Made in the Xbox Security System (Steil, 2005)  lecture notes

Overshadow: a virtualization-based approach to retrofitting protection in commodity operating systems (Chen, Garfinkel, Lewis, Subrahmanyam, Waldspurger, Boneh, Dwoskin, Ports, ASPLOS 2008)
InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System (Hofmann, Dunn, Kim, Lee, Witchel, ASPLOS 2013)
A VMM Security Kernel for the VAX Architecture (Karger, Zurko, Bonin, Mason, Kahn, IEEE Oakland Security, 1990)
Authentication in Distributed Systems : Theory and Practice (Lampson, Abadi, Burrows, and Wobber, TOCS, 1992)  notes
A Logic of Authentication (Burrorws, Abadi, and Needham, TOCS, 1990)  notes
Information flow control for standard OS abstractions (Krohn, Yip, Brodsky, Cliffer, Kaashoek, Kohler, and Morris, SOSP, 2007)

Mon 04/24 Security

1) The Many Faces of Systems Research - And How To Evaluate Them (Brown, Chanda, Farrow, Fedorova, Maniatis, Scott, HotOS 2005)
2) The Confused Deputy (Hardy, SIGOPS OSR, 1988)  lecture notes

A Decentralized Model for Information Flow Control (Myers and Liskov, SOSP, 1997)
Laminar: Practical Fine-Grained Decentralized Information Flow Control (Roy, Setty, Kilzer, Shmatikov, Witchel, PLDI 2009)
Improving Application Security with Data Flow Assertions (Yip, Wang, Zeldovich, and Kaashoek, SOSP, 2009)
Why Cryptosystems Fail (Anderson, 1994)

Wed 04/26 Exam 2

Exam time and location TBD.

Hints for Computer System Design (Lampson, SIGOPS OSR, 1983)
A Note on the Confinement Problem (Lampson, Communications of ACM, 1973)
Reflections on Trusting Trust <(Thompson, Turing Award Lecture, 1984)

Mon 05/01 Overflow and makeup

Wed 05/03 Project presentations

In-class Presentation
Project DUE

Fri 05/05 Additional reading

Linearizability: A Correctness Condition for Concurrent Objects (Herlihy and Wing, TOPLAS, 1990)
Klee: Unassisted and Automatic Generation of High-Coverage Tests for Complex Systems Programs (Cadar, Dunbar, and Engler, OSDI, 2008)
A few billion lines of code later: using static analysis to find bugs in the real world (Bessey, Block, Chelf, Chou, Fulton, Hallem, Henri-Gros, Kamsky, McPeak, Engler, CACM v53 no 2, 2010)
Weird things that surprise academics trying to commercialize a static checking tool (Chou, Chelf, Hallem, Hanri-Gros, Fulton, Unangst, Zak, and Engler, SPIN, 2005)
EROS: A Fast Capability System (Shapiro, Smith, and Farber, SOSP, 1999)
Capsicum: practical capabilities for UNIX (Watson, Anderson, Laurie, Kennaway, USENIX security 2010) < a href=lectures/capsicum.pdf>notes

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