Sharing Features Between Objects
and Their Attributes

Sung Ju Hwang, Fei Sha and Kristen Grauman
The University of Texas at Austin
University of Southern California




Abstract

Visual attributes expose human-defined semantics to object recognition models, but existing work largely restricts their influence to mid-level cues during classifier training. Rather than treat attributes as intermediate features, we consider how learning visual properties in concert with object categories can regularize the models for both. Given a low-level visual feature space together with attribute and object-labeled image data, we learn a shared lower-dimensional representation by optimizing a joint loss function that favors common sparsity patterns across both types of prediction tasks. We use a kernelized formulation of convex multi-task feature learning, in which one alternates between learning the common features and learning task-specific classifier parameters on top of those features. In this way, our approach discovers any structure among the image descriptors that is relevant to both tasks, and allows the top-down semantics to restrict the hypothesis space of the ultimate object classifiers. We validate the approach on datasets of animals and outdoor scenes, and show significant improvements over traditional multi-class object classifiers and direct attribute prediction models.

1) Idea


Main idea. The main idea is to build a model where object categories and their human-defined visual attributes share a lowerdimensional representation (dashed lines indicate zero-valued connections), thereby allowing the attribute-level supervision to regularize the learned object models.

2) Approach

2.1) Learning Shared Features via Regularization

The objective function we want to minimize is as follows:

2.2) Convex Optimization

As the objective in 2.1) is not convex, due to the (2,1)-norm, and possibly by the choice of loss function we use, we instead solve the equivalent optimization problem of the form:

2.3) Extension to Kernel Classifiers

2.4) Implementation

The implementation is done in Matlab and is based on the implementation of the convex multitask feature learning by Andreas Argyriou

3) Results

3.1) Datasets

We use two datasets: Animals with Attributes, and Ourdoor Scene Recognition dataset
Dataset Number of images Number of classes Number of attributes
Animals with Attributes 30,475 50 85
Outdoor Scene Recognition Dataset 2,688 8 6

Table 1. Dataset statistics

3.2) Impact of Sharing Features

We define two baselines. No Sharing-Object (NSO): a traditional multi-class object recognition approach using an SVM with a chi-square kernel, and No Sharing-Attributes (NSA): an approach that treats attributes as intermediate features, where we train SVMs on attributes to predict their labels, and then performing direct attributes predictions. We evaluate the object recognition accuracy of our approach and the baselines on two datasets, on four training splits of increasing size (10% to 60%)


Table 2. Accuracy on both datasets as a function of training set size.


Accuracy on AWA classes.


Accuracy on OSR classes.

3.3) Selecting Relevant Attributes

Not all attributes will benefit feature sharing, and some may be even deterimental. Then how can we select the attributes that can actually help object class recognition? We can simply compute all the attributes by their mutual information to the classes we want to recognize, rank them and drop the attributes with low mutual information. The experimental results on the attributes sorted by their mutual information confirms that this simple method could actually improve object recognition or reduce training time.

Mutual information of selected classes and the accuracy as a function of the number of attributes sorted by mutual information.

Publication

Sharing Features Between Objects and Their Attributes.
Sung Ju Hwang, Fei Sha and Kristen Grauman
To Appear, In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR),
Colorado Springs, CO, June 2011