Alists with hidden hash tables for faster execution
The implementation of fast alists is, in many ways, similar to that
of ACL2 arrays. Logically, hons-acons is just like acons, and
hons-get is similar to assoc-equal. But under the hood, hash
tables are associated with these alists, and, when a certain discipline
is followed, these functions execute with hash table speeds.
What is this discipline? Each hons-acons operation "steals" the
hash table associated with the alist that is being extended. Because of this,
one must be very conscious of which object is the most recent extension of an
alist and use that extension exclusively.
The only penalty for a failure to keep track of the most recent extension
is a loss of execution speed, not of correctness, and perhaps the annoyance of
Maintaining discipline may require careful passing of a fast alist up and
down through function calls, as with any single threaded object in an
applicative setting, but there is no syntactic enforcement that insists
you only use the most recent extension of an alist as there is for single
threaded objects (stobjs). Also, even with perfectly proper code,
discipline can sometimes be lost due to user interrupts and aborts.
See hons-acons for how the final cdr of a fast alist can be
used as a size hint or as a name for reports printed by calling fast-alist-summary.
The keys of fast alists are always normed. Why? In Common Lisp,
equal-based hashing is relatively slow, so to allow the use of eql-based hash
tables, hons-acons and hons-get always hons-copy the
Since alist keys are frequently atoms, this norming activity may often be
so fast that you do not need to think about it. But if you are going to use
large structures as the keys for your fast alist, this overhead can be
significant, and you may want to ensure that your keys are normed ahead of
There is no automatic mechanism for reclaiming the hash tables that
are associated with alists. Because of this, to avoid memory leaks, you
should call fast-alist-free to remove the hash table associated with
alists that will no longer be used.
- Warnings/errors issued when fast-alists are used inefficiently
- (hons-acons key val alist) is the main way to create or extend
- (fast-alist-fork alist ans) can be used to eliminate
"shadowed pairs" from an alist or to copy fast-alists.
- (hons-acons! key val alist) is an alternative to hons-acons that produces normed, fast alists.
- (with-fast-alist name form) causes name to be a fast alist
for the execution of form.
- (fast-alist-clean alist) can be used to eliminate
"shadowed pairs" from a fast alist.
- fast-alist-pop removes the first key-value pair from a fast
alist, provided that the key is not bound in the remainder of the alist.
- (hons-get key alist) is the efficient lookup operation for fast-alists.
- (fast-alist-free alist) throws away the hash table associated
with a fast alist.
- fast-alist-pop* removes the first key-value pair from a fast
alist, rebinding that key to its previous value in the backing hash table.
That value must be provided as the prev-binding argument.
- (hons-assoc-equal key alist) is not fast; it serves as
the logical definition for hons-get.
- (make-fast-alist alist) creates a fast-alist from the input
alist, returning alist itself or, in some cases, a new object equal to
- Make a fast alist out of an alist.
- Free a fast alist after the completion of some form.
- (with-stolen-alist name form) ensures that name is a fast
alist at the start of the execution of form. At the end of execution, it
ensures that name is a fast alist if and only if it was originally. That
is, if name was not a fast alist originally, its hash table link is freed,
and if it was a fast alist originally but its table was modified during the
execution of form, that table is restored. Note that any extended table
created from the original fast alist during form must be manually freed.
- (fast-alist-fork! alist ans) is an alternative to fast-alist-fork that produces a normed result.
- (fast-alist-summary) prints some basic statistics about any
current fast alists.
- (fast-alist-clean! alist) is an alternative to fast-alist-clean that produces a normed result.
- (fast-alist-len alist) counts the number of unique keys in a
- Concisely call with-stolen-alist on multiple alists.
- Concisely call fast-alist-free-on-exit for several alists.
- Build a fast alist whose keys are the subtrees of X
- Concisely call with-fast-alist on multiple alists.
- Basic duplicates check; table is a fast alist that associates
already-seen elements with t.
- (ANSFL X Y) returns the single value X after first flushing
the fast hash table backing for Y, if Y is a fast alist.
- REVAPPEND using HONS instead of CONS
- MEMBER-EQUAL using HONS-EQUAL for each equality check
- Like make-list, but produces honses.
- REVERSE using HONS instead of CONS
- (LIST* ...) using HONS instead of CONS
- (LIST ...) using HONS instead of CONS
- APPEND using HONS instead of CONS