One approach to task decomposition in the soccer server is to assign fixed positions to agents. Such an approach leads to several problems: i) short-term inflexibility in that the players cannot adapt their positions to the ball's location on the field; ii) long-term inflexibility in that the team cannot adapt to opponent strategy; and iii) local inefficiency in that players often get tired running across the field back to their positions after chasing the ball. Our formations allow for flexible teamwork and combat these problems. (As the term ``position'' is often used to denote the concept of ``role'' in the soccer domain, in this section we use the two terms interchangeably.)
This section describes the CMUnited-97 simulator team implementation of the teamwork structure presented in Section 4. In the context of the team member agent architecture in Section 3, it covers the locker-room agreement, the internal behaviors, and the internal state.