### Benford's Law (Due 29 Apr 2017)

In 1881, Simon Newcomb had noticed that in tables of logarithms, the
first pages were much more worn and smudged than later pages. In 1938,
Frank Benford published a paper showing the distribution of the leading
digit in many disparate sources of data. In all these sets of data, the
number 1 was the leading digit about 30% of the time.

Benford's law has been found to apply to population numbers, death
rates, lengths of rivers, mathematical distributions given by some
power law, and physical constants like atomic weights and specific heats.
This law is now used to detect fraud in lists of socio-economic data
submitted in support of public planning decisions and as an indicator
of accounting and expenses fraud.

In this programming assignment you will verify Benford's law for the
US Census data of 2009. The file Census_2009
gives the population distribution in the US. Each line of data
has the name of the state, the town or village, and its population.
The linked Python code reads the file
and stores all the population data into a list.

You will create a dictionary that create a frequency distribution of the
the first digit of the population numbers. You will print out the
actual frequency and the relative frequency of each digit. The sample
output will look like:

Digit Count %
1 18 30.0
2 8 13.3
3 8 13.3
4 6 10.0
5 10 16.7
6 5 8.3
7 2 3.3
8 1 1.7
9 2 3.3

The above program will have a header of the following form:

# File: Benford.py
# Description:
# Student Name:
# Student UT EID:
# Course Name: CS 303E
# Unique Number:
# Date Created:
# Date Last Modified:

Use the Canvas program to
submit your **Benford.py** file. We should receive your work by 11 PM
on Saturday, 29 Apr 2017. There will be substantial penalties if you do not
adhere to the guidelines.

- Your Python program should have the header with the proper
documentation.
- Your code must run before submission on the command line.
- You should be submitting your file through the web based
*Canvas* program. We will not accept files e-mailed to us.
- Here is the Grading Criteria.

#### References

- Benford's
Law
- Benford's
Law in Wolfram Math World