Advanced Operating Systems

(Piazza course site). (Review template, In-class presentations,) Note that numbered entries in the non-required reading section are highly encouraged.

Date Topic Zoom Assignments Reading Non-required Reading
Tue 01/18 Course Intro

HW 1 out

1) How (and How Not) to Write a Good Systems Paper (Levin and Redell, SIGOPS OSR, 1983)
2) On Being the Right Size (Haldane, 1928)

lecture slides
lecture video

You and Your Research(Hamming 1986)

Thu 01/20 Correctness

HW1 in-class quiz

1) The UNIX Timesharing System (Ritchie and Thompson, SOSP, 1974) other notes
2) Medical Devices, The Therac-25 (Levinson, Safeware: System Safety and Computers, 1995) SKIM!
3) The Rise of Worse is Better (Richard Gabriel, Lisp: Good News, Bad News, How to Win Big, 1989)

Therac lecture slides
Unix lecture slides
lecture video

The Wrong Patient (Chassin and Becher, American College of Physicians - American Society of Internal Medicine, 2002)
Radiation Offers New Cures, and Ways to Do Harm (New York Times 2010 flash animation)
The Task of the Referee (Smith)

Tue 01/25 OS Design

1) Exokernel: An Operating System Architecture for Application-Level Resource Management (Engler, Kaashoek, and O'Toole Jr., SOSP, 1995)    other notes
2) End-to-end Arguments in System Design -- (through page 4) -- (Saltzer, Reed, and Clark, TOCS, 1984)  other notes
Unix lecture slides
lecture video

1) The Linux Edge (Linus Torvalds, Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 1999)
Singularity: Rethinking the Software Stack (Hunt and Larus, SIGOPS OSR, 2007)
THE (Dijkstra, 1968)
Application performance and Flexibility on Exokernel Systems (Kaashoek, Engler, Ganger, Briceno, Hunt, Mazieres, Pinckney, Grimm, Jannotti, and Mackenzie, SOSP, 1997)
On Micro-Kernel Construction (Liedtke, SOSP, 1995)  notes

Thu 01/27 OS Design

1) Threads and Input/Output in the Synthesis Kernel (Massalin and Pu, SOSP, 1989)  other notes

Exokernel lecture slides
lecture video

Chapter 6 from Massalin's Thesis (1992)
Protection and the Control of Information Sharing in Multics (Saltzer, 1974)

Tue 02/01 mmap + page faults

Understanding the Linux Kernel (3rd Edition) Chapter 9, Process Address Space (skim)
1) Practical, transparent operating system support for superpages (Navarro, Iyer, Druschel, and Cox, OSDI 2002)  

Synthesis lecture slides
lecture video

Coordinated and Efficient Huge Page Management with Ingens
Machine-Independent Virtual Memory Management for Paged Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor Architectures (Rashid, Tevanian, Young, Golub, Baron, Black, Bolosky, and Chew, 1987)

Thu 02/03 Virtual machines

Lab 0 due

1) Xen and Art of Virtualization (Barham, Dragovic, Fraser, Hand, Harris, Ho, Neugebaur, Pratt and Warfield, SOSP 2003).  lecture notes  other notes
2) Are Virtual Machine Monitors Microkernels Done Right? (Hand, Warfield, Fraser, Kotsovinos, and Magenheimer, HotOS 2005)
3) Are Virtual Machine Monitors Microkernels Done Right? (Heiser, Uhlig, and LeVasseur, SIGOPS OSR, 2006)

Intel Virtualization Technology (Uhlig, Neiger, Rodgers, Santoni, Martins, Anderson, Bennett, Kagi, Leung, and Smith, IEEE Computer 2005)
Intel Virtualization Technology (journal version) (Neiger, Santoni, Leung, Rodgers, Uhlig, Intel Technology Journal 2006)

Tue 02/08 Virtual machines

1) Memory Resource Management in VMware ESX Server (Waldspurger, OSDI, 2002)  other notes

Superpages lecture slides
lecture video

The Turtles Project: Design and Implementation of Nested Virtualization (Ben-Yehuda, Day, Dubitzky, Factor, Har’El, Gordon, Liguoriz, Wasserman, Yassour, OSDI 2010)
Unix as an Application Process (Golub, USENIX, 1990)
Compatibility is not transparency VMM detection myths and realities (Garfinkel, Adams, Warfield, and Franklin, HOTOS, 2007)
Disco: Running Commodity Operating Systems on Scalable Multiprocessors (Bugnion, Devine, and Rosenblum, SOSP, 1997)  notes

Thu 02/10 Virtualization

1) Memory Resource Management in VMware ESX Server (Waldspurger, OSDI, 2002)  other notes

Xen lecture slides
lecture video

Rethinking the Library OS from the Top Down (Porter, Boyd-Wickizer, Howell, Olinsky, and Hunt, ASPLOS 2011)
Dune: Safe User-level Access to Privileged CPU Features (Belay, Bittau, Mashtizadeh, Terei, Mazieres, Kozyrakis, OSDI 2012)

Tue 02/15 Lightweight Virtualization

1) Arrakis: The Operating System is the Control Plane (Peter, Li, Zhang, Ports, Woos, Krishnamurthy, Anderson, Roscoe. OSDI, 2014)  other notes
2) Jitsu: just-in-time summoning of unikernels (Madhavapeddy, Leonard, Skjegstad, Gazagnaire, Sheets, Scott, Mortier, Chaudhry, Singh, Ludlam, Crowcroft, Leslie, NSDI 2015)
3) AvA: Accelerated Virtualization of Accelerators(Yu, Akshintala, Peters, Rossbach ASPLOS 2020)

lecture slides
lecture video

Thu 02/17 File systems

Lab 1 due

1) Crash Consistency: FSCK and Journaling (Chapter 42 in Operating Systems: Three Easy Pieces) (R. Arpaci-Dusseau, A. Arpaci-Dusseau)
2) A Fast File System for UNIX (McKusick, Joy, Leffler, and Fabry, TOCS, 1984) other notes

ESX lecture slides
Arrakis lecture slides
lecture video

Disks from the Perspective of a File System (Marshall Kirk McKusick, ACM Queue, 2012)
Improving the Performance of fsck in FreeBSD (Marshall Kirk McKusick 2013)

Tue 02/22 File systems

1) The Design and Implementation of a Log-Structured File System (Rosenblum and Ousterhout, TOCS, 1992)  other notes
2) Ousterhout's critique of Seltzer's 1993 paper
3) Ousterhout's critique of Seltzer's 1995 paper
4) Seltzer's response to Ousterhout's critiques
5) Ousterhout's response to Seltzer
6) Log structured file systems: There's one in every SSD (Valerie Aurora (formerly Henson)) LWN 2009)
Arrakis lecture slides
JITSU lecture slides
AvA lecture slides
lecture video

An Introduction to Disk Drive Modeling (Ruemmler and Wilkes, 1994)
Soft Updates: A Technique for Eliminating Most Synchronous Writes in the Fast Filesystem (McKusick and Ganger, USENIX, 1999)
Generalized File System Dependences (Frost, Mammarella, Kohler, de los Reyes, Hovsepian, Matsuoka, and Zhang, SOSP 2007)

Thu 02/24 Networked file systems

1) Design and Implementation of the SUN Network Filesystem (Sandberg, Goldberg, Kleiman, Walsh, and Lyon, USENIX, 1985)  other notes

lecture slides
lecture video

XDR: External Data Representation Standard (M. Eisler, Ed., RFC 4506, 2006) pdf txt
Remote Procedure Calls (Birrell and Nelson, TOCS, 1984)  notes

Tue 03/01 Data center file systems

1) The Google File System (Ghemawat, Gobioff, and Leung, SOSP, 2003)  other notes

lecture slides
lecture video

1) GFS: Evolution on Fast-forward (McKusick and Quinlan, ACM Queue, 2009)

Thu 03/03 Events and Threads

1) Experiences with Processes and Monitors in Mesa (Lampson and Redell, Communications of the ACM 23, 2, 1980)  notes
2) The "Double-Checked Locking is Broken" Declaration (Bacon, Bloch, Bogda, Click, Haahr, Lea, May, Maessen, Mitchell, Nilsen, Pugh, Sirer, 2004)

lecture slides
lecture video

JSR 133 (Java Memory Model FAQ by Manson and Goetz, 2004)

Tue 03/08 Events and Threads

Lab 2 due

1) Scheduler Activations (Anderson, Bershad, Lazowska, and Levy, TOCS, 1992)
2) Introduction to Non-blocking IO (Kegel 1999)
3) Exchange between Linus Torvalds and David Patterson about parallelism Part 1
4) Part 2
5) Part 3

lecture slides
lecture video

Event-driven Programming for Robust Software (Dabek, Zeldovich, Kaashoek, Mazieres, and Morris, SIGOPS, 2002)
Why Events Are A Bad Idea (for high-concurrency servers) (von Behren, Condit, and Brewer, HOTOS, 2003)
Cooperative Task Management without Manual Stack Management Adya, Howell, Theimer, Bolosky, Douceur, USENIX 2002)

Thu 03/10 Exam

Exam in class.  faux-quiz compilation

Tue 03/15 no class

Spring Break!

Thu 03/17 no class

Spring Break!

Tue 03/22 Concurrency and Transactions

Ordering concurrent events and transactions in Principles of Transaction Processing (second edition by Philip A. Bernstein and Eric Newcomer 2009)  book notes
The Art of Multiprocessor Programming (Maurice Herlihy and Nir Shavit, 2008) 3-3.6  book notes  notes

lecture slides
lecture video

Transaction Processing: Concepts and Techniques (Jim Gray and Andreas Reuter 1993) 1.1 - 1.2.5
4.2, 4.7 and 4.7.1, 4.9 and 4.9.1
The Transaction Concept (Gray, 1981)   notes

Thu 03/24 Concurrency and Transactions

Project Plan DUE

1) Operating System Transactions (Porter, Hofmann, Rossbach, Benn, and Witchel, SOSP, 2009)
lecture slides lecture video-->

Experiences with transactions in QuickSilver (Shmuck and Wyllie, SOSP 1991)

Tue 03/29 Concurrency & Synchronization

1) RaceTrack: Efficient Detection of Data Race Conditions via Adaptive Tracking (Yu, Rodeheffer, and Chen, SOSP, 2005) notes

Transactions lecture slides

TxOS lecture slides
lecture video

Eraser: A Dynamic Data Race Detector for Multithreaded Programs (Savage, Burrows, Nelson, Sobalvarro, Anderson, TOCS, 1997)

Thu 03/31 Datacenter computing

Lab 3 due

1) MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters (Dean and Ghemawat, OSDI, 2004)
2) MapReduce: A Major Step Backwards (DeWitt and Stonebreaker, 2008)
3) Resilient Distributed Datasets: A Fault-Tolerant Abstraction for In-Memory Cluster Computing (Zaharia, Chowdhury, Das, Dave, Ma, McCauley, Franklin, Shenker, and Stoica, NSDI 2012)

TxOS lecture slides

RaceTrack lecture slides
lecture video

A Comparison of Approaches to Large-Scale Data Analysis (Pavlo, Paulson, Rasin, Abadi, DeWitt, Madden, Stonebreaker, SIGMOD 2009)
BigTable: A system for Distributed Structured Storage (Chang, Dean, Ghemawat, Hsieh, Wallach, Burrows, Chandra, Fikes, and Gruber, OSDI, 2006) webnotes video
Large-scale Incremental Processing Using Distributed Transactions and Notifications (Peng and Dabek, OSDI 2010)
Brewer's CAP Theorem (Browne 2009)
Spanner: Google's Globally-Distributed Database (Corbett, Dean, Epstein, Fikes, Frost, Furman, Ghemawat, Gubarev, Heiser, Hochschild, Hsieh, Kanthak, Kogan, Li, Lloyd, Melnik, Mwaura, Nagle, Quinlan, Rao, Rolig, Saito, Szymaniak, Taylor, Wang and Woodford, OSDI, 2012)
Dynamo: Amazon’s Highly Avaiable Key-value Store
PNUTS: Yahoo!'s Hosted Data Serving Platform (Cooper, Ramakrishnan, Srivastava, Silberstein, Bohannon, Jacobsen, Puz, Weaver, Yereni, VLDB, 2008)

Tue 04/05 Scale and Programmability

Revised Project Plan DUE

MapReduce lecture slides
Spark lecture slides
lecture video

DryadLINQ: a system for general-purpose distributed data-parallel computing using a high-level language (Yu, Isard, Fetterly, Budiu, Erlingsson, Gunda, Currey, OSDI 2008)

Thu 04/07 Scale and Programmability

1) Tango: distributed data structures over a shared log (Balakrishnan, Malkhi, Wobber, Wu, Prabhakaran, Wei, Davis, Rao, Zou, Zuck, SOSP 2013)
2) Naiad: a timely dataflow system (Murray, McSherry, Isaacs, Isard, Barham, Abadi, SOSP 2013)

Spark lecture slides
Tango lecture slides
lecture video

DryadLINQ: a system for general-purpose distributed data-parallel computing using a high-level language (Yu, Isard, Fetterly, Budiu, Erlingsson, Gunda, Currey, OSDI 2008)

Tue 04/12 Scale and Programmability

1) Dandelion: a compiler and runtime for heterogeneous systems (Rossbach, Yu, Currey, Martin, Fetterly, SOSP 2013)

Tango lecture slides
Naiad lecture slides
lecture video

Thu 04/14 Scale and Programmability

1) Dandelion: a compiler and runtime for heterogeneous systems (Rossbach, Yu, Currey, Martin, Fetterly, SOSP 2013)

Dandelion lecture slides
lecture video

Tue 04/19 Heterogeneity

1) GPUfs: Integrating a file system with GPUs (Silberstein, Ford, Keidar, Witchel, ASPLOS 2013)
2) PTask: operating system abstractions to manage GPUs as compute devices (Rossbach, Currey, Silberstein, Ray, Witchel, SOSP 2011)

PTask lecture slides

GPUfs lecture slides
lecture video

Helios: heterogeneous multiprocessing with satellite kernels (Nightingale, Hodson, McIlroy, Hawblitzel, Hunt, SOSP 2009)
Tapping into the fountain of CPUs: on operating system support for programmable devices (Weinsberg, Dolev, Anker, Ben-Yehuda, Wyckoff, ASPLOS 2008)
Pegasus: coordinated scheduling for virtualized accelerator-based systems (Gupta, Schwan, Tolia, Talwar, Ranganathan, ATC 2011)
TimeGraph: GPU scheduling for real-time multi-tasking environments
TensorFlow: A system for Large-scale Machine Learning (Abadi et al., OSDI 2016)

Thu 04/21 Security

1) Ryoan: A Distributed Sandbox for Untrusted Computation on Secret Data (Hunt, Zhu, Xu, Peter, Witchel)
2) 17 Mistakes Microsoft Made in the Xbox Security System (Steil, 2005)

Ryoan lecture slides

Xbox lecture slides
lecture video

Overshadow: a virtualization-based approach to retrofitting protection in commodity operating systems (Chen, Garfinkel, Lewis, Subrahmanyam, Waldspurger, Boneh, Dwoskin, Ports, ASPLOS 2008)
InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System (Hofmann, Dunn, Kim, Lee, Witchel, ASPLOS 2013)
A VMM Security Kernel for the VAX Architecture (Karger, Zurko, Bonin, Mason, Kahn, IEEE Oakland Security, 1990)
Authentication in Distributed Systems : Theory and Practice (Lampson, Abadi, Burrows, and Wobber, TOCS, 1992)  notes
A Logic of Authentication (Burrorws, Abadi, and Needham, TOCS, 1990)  notes
Information flow control for standard OS abstractions (Krohn, Yip, Brodsky, Cliffer, Kaashoek, Kohler, and Morris, SOSP, 2007)

Tue 04/26 Non-volatile storage (Guest Co-Lecturer Amanda Raybuck)

1) Mnemosyne: Lightweight Persistent Memory (Volos, Tack, Swift, ASPLOS 2011)
2) HeMem: Scalable Tiered Memory Management for Big Data Applications and Real NVM (Raybuck, Stamler, Zhang, Erez, Peter, SOSP 2021)

lecture slides
lecture video-

Phase-Change Technology and the Future of Main Memory (Lee, Zhou, Zhao, Ipek, Mutlu, Burger, IEEE Micro Top Picks 2010)

Thu 04/28 Verification

1) seL4: Formal Verification of an OS Kernel (Klein, Elphinstone, Heiser, Andronick, Cock, Derrin, Elkaduwe, Engelhardt, Kolanski, Norrish, Sewell, Tuch, Winwood)
2) IronFleet: Proving Practical Distributed Systems Correct (Hawblitzel, Howell, Kapritsos, Lorch, Parno, Roberts, Setty, Zill)

seL4 slides

Ironfleet slides
lecture video

Tue 05/03 Exam 2

Exam in class.  faux-quiz compilation

Hints for Computer System Design (Lampson, SIGOPS OSR, 1983)
A Note on the Confinement Problem (Lampson, Communications of ACM, 1973)
Reflections on Trusting Trust <(Thompson, Turing Award Lecture, 1984)

Thu 05/05 Project due

Project DUE

Fri 05/06 Additional reading

The Many Faces of Systems Research - And How To Evaluate Them (Brown, Chanda, Farrow, Fedorova, Maniatis, Scott, HotOS 2005)
The Confused Deputy (Hardy, SIGOPS OSR, 1988)  lecture notes
A Decentralized Model for Information Flow Control (Myers and Liskov, SOSP, 1997)
Laminar: Practical Fine-Grained Decentralized Information Flow Control (Roy, Setty, Kilzer, Shmatikov, Witchel, PLDI 2009)
Improving Application Security with Data Flow Assertions (Yip, Wang, Zeldovich, and Kaashoek, SOSP, 2009)
Why Cryptosystems Fail (Anderson, 1994)
Linearizability: A Correctness Condition for Concurrent Objects (Herlihy and Wing, TOPLAS, 1990)
Klee: Unassisted and Automatic Generation of High-Coverage Tests for Complex Systems Programs (Cadar, Dunbar, and Engler, OSDI, 2008)
A few billion lines of code later: using static analysis to find bugs in the real world (Bessey, Block, Chelf, Chou, Fulton, Hallem, Henri-Gros, Kamsky, McPeak, Engler, CACM v53 no 2, 2010)
Weird things that surprise academics trying to commercialize a static checking tool (Chou, Chelf, Hallem, Hanri-Gros, Fulton, Unangst, Zak, and Engler, SPIN, 2005)
EROS: A Fast Capability System (Shapiro, Smith, and Farber, SOSP, 1999)
Capsicum: practical capabilities for UNIX (Watson, Anderson, Laurie, Kennaway, USENIX security 2010) < a href=lectures/capsicum.pdf>notes

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