- Constraint Propagation for Efficient Inference in Markov Logic

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Tivadar Papai, Parag Singla and Henry Kautz

In*Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2011)*, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), 691-705, September 2011.Many real world problems can be modeled using a combination of hard and soft constraints. Markov Logic is a highly expressive language which represents the underlying constraints by attaching real-valued weights to formulas in first order logic. The weight of a formula represents the strength of the corresponding constraint. Hard constraints are represented as formulas with infinite weight. The theory is compiled into a ground Markov network over which probabilistic inference can be done. For many problems, hard constraints pose a significant challenge to the probabilistic inference engine. However, solving the hard constraints (partially or fully) before hand outside of the probabilistic engine can hugely simplify the ground Markov network and speed probabilistic inference. In this work, we propose a generalized arc consistency algorithm that prunes the domains of predicates by propagating hard constraints. Our algorithm effectively performs unit propagation at a lifted level, avoiding the need to explicitly ground the hard constraints during the pre-processing phase, yielding a potentially exponential savings in space and time. Our approach results in much simplified domains, thereby, making the inference significantly more efficient both in terms of time and memory. Experimental evaluation over one artificial and two real-world datasets show the benefit of our approach.

ML ID: 268

- Online Structure Learning for Markov Logic Networks

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Tuyen N. Huynh and Raymond J. Mooney

In*Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML-PKDD 2011)*, 81-96, September 2011.Most existing learning methods for Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) use batch training, which becomes computationally expensive and eventually infeasible for large datasets with thousands of training examples which may not even all fit in main memory. To address this issue, previous work has used online learning to train MLNs. However, they all assume that the model's structure (set of logical clauses) is given, and only learn the model's parameters. However, the input structure is usually incomplete, so it should also be updated. In this work, we present OSL-the first algorithm that performs both online structure and parameter learning for MLNs. Experimental results on two real- world datasets for natural-language field segmentation show that OSL outperforms systems that cannot revise structure.

ML ID: 267

- Abductive Plan Recognition by Extending Bayesian Logic Programs

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Sindhu Raghavan, Raymond J. Mooney

In*Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning/Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML-PKDD 2011)*, 629-644, September 2011.Plan recognition is the task of predicting an agent's top-level plans based on its observed actions. It is an abductive reasoning task that involves inferring cause from effect. Most existing approaches to plan recognition use either first-order logic or probabilistic graphical models. While the former can- not handle uncertainty, the latter cannot handle structured representations. In or- der to overcome these limitations, we develop an approach to plan recognition using Bayesian Logic Programs (BLPs), which combine first-order logic and Bayesian networks. Since BLPs employ logical deduction to construct the net- works, they cannot be used effectively for plan recognition. Therefore, we extend BLPs to use logical abduction to construct Bayesian networks and call the result- ing model Bayesian Abductive Logic Programs (BALPs). We learn the parame- ters in BALPs using the Expectation Maximization algorithm adapted for BLPs. Finally, we present an experimental evaluation of BALPs on three benchmark data sets and compare its performance with the state-of-the-art for plan recognition.

ML ID: 266

- Building a Persistent Workforce on Mechanical Turk for Multilingual Data Collection

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David L. Chen and William B. Dolan

In*Proceedings of The 3rd Human Computation Workshop (HCOMP 2011)*, August 2011.Traditional methods of collecting translation and paraphrase data are prohibitively expensive, making the construction of large, new corpora difficult. While crowdsourcing offers a cheap alternative, quality control and scalability can become problematic. We discuss a novel annotation task that uses videos as the stimulus which discourages cheating. In addi- tion, our approach requires only monolingual speakers, thus making it easier to scale since more workers are qualified to contribute. Finally, we employ a multi-tiered payment system that helps retain good workers over the long-term, resulting in a persistent, high-quality workforce. We present the results of one of the largest linguistic data collection efforts to date using Mechanical Turk, yielding 85K English sentences and more than 1k sentences for each of a dozen more languages.

ML ID: 265

- Learning to Interpret Natural Language Navigation Instructions from Observations

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David L. Chen and Raymond J. Mooney

In*Proceedings of the 25th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-2011)*, 859-865, August 2011.The ability to understand natural-language instructions is critical to building intelligent agents that interact with humans. We present a system that learns to transform natural-language navigation instructions into executable formal plans. Given no prior linguistic knowledge, the system learns by simply observing how humans follow navigation instructions. The system is evaluated in three complex virtual indoor environments with numerous objects and landmarks. A previously collected realistic corpus of complex English navigation instructions for these environments is used for training and testing data. By using a learned lexicon to refine inferred plans and a supervised learner to induce a semantic parser, the system is able to automatically learn to correctly interpret a reasonable fraction of the complex instructions in this corpus.

ML ID: 264

- Abductive Markov Logic for Plan Recognition

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Parag Singla and Raymond J. Mooney

In*Proceedings of the 25th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-2011)*, 1069-1075, August 2011.Plan recognition is a form of abductive reasoning that involves inferring plans that best explain sets of observed actions. Most existing approaches to plan recognition and other abductive tasks employ either purely logical methods that do not handle uncertainty, or purely probabilistic methods that do not handle structured representations. To overcome these limitations, this paper introduces an approach to abductive reasoning using a first-order probabilistic logic, specifically Markov Logic Networks (MLNs). It introduces several novel techniques for making MLNs efficient and effective for abduction. Experiments on three plan recognition datasets show the benefit of our approach over existing methods.

ML ID: 263

- Cross-Cutting Models of Lexical Semantics

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Joseph Reisinger and Raymond Mooney

In*Proceedings of The Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2011)*, 1405-1415, July 2011.Context-dependent word similarity can be measured over multiple cross-cutting dimensions. For example, lung and breath are similar thematically, while authoritative and superﬁcial occur in similar syntactic contexts, but share little semantic similarity. Both of these notions of similarity play a role in determining word meaning, and hence lexical semantic models must take them both into account. Towards this end, we develop a novel model, Multi-View Mixture (MVM), that represents words as multiple overlapping clusterings. MVM ﬁnds multiple data partitions based on different subsets of features, subject to the marginal constraint that feature subsets are distributed according to Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Intuitively, this constraint favors feature partitions that have coherent topical semantics. Furthermore, MVM uses soft feature assignment, hence the contribution of each data point to each clustering view is variable, isolating the impact of data only to views where they assign the most features. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate the utility of MVM as an inductive bias for capturing relations between words that are intuitive to humans, outperforming related models such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation.

ML ID: 262

- Panning for Gold: Finding Relevant Semantic Content for Grounded Language Learning

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David L. Chen and Raymond J. Mooney

In*Proceedings of Symposium on Machine Learning in Speech and Language Processing (MLSLP 2011)*, June 2011.One of the key challenges in grounded language acquisition is resolving the intentions of the expressions. Typically the task involves identifying a subset of records from a list of candidates as the correct meaning of a sentence. While most current work assume complete or partial independence be- tween the records, we examine a scenario in which they are strongly related. By representing the set of potential meanings as a graph, we explicitly encode the relationships between the candidate meanings. We introduce a refinement algorithm that first learns a lexicon which is then used to remove parts of the graphs that are irrelevant. Experiments in a navigation domain shows that the algorithm successfully recovered over three quarters of the correct semantic content.

ML ID: 261

- Fine-Grained Class Label Markup of Search Queries

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Joseph Reisinger and Marius Pasca

In*Proceedings of The 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (ACL-HLT 2011)*, 1200-1209, June 2011.We develop a novel approach to the semantic analysis of short text segments and demonstrate its utility on a large corpus of Web search queries. Extracting meaning from short text segments is difﬁcult as there is little semantic redundancy between terms; hence methods based on shallow semantic analysis may fail to accurately estimate meaning. Furthermore search queries lack explicit syntax often used to determine intent in question answering. In this paper we propose a hybrid model of semantic analysis combining explicit class-label extraction with a latent class PCFG. This class-label correlation (CLC) model admits a robust parallel approximation, allowing it to scale to large amounts of query data. We demonstrate its performance in terms of (1) its predicted label accuracy on polysemous queries and (2) its ability to accurately chunk queries into base constituents.

ML ID: 260

- Collecting Highly Parallel Data for Paraphrase Evaluation

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David L. Chen and William B. Dolan

In*Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics*, 190-200, Portland, Oregon, USA, June 2011.A lack of standard datasets and evaluation metrics has prevented the field of paraphrasing from making the kind of rapid progress enjoyed by the machine translation community over the last 15 years. We address both problems by presenting a novel data collection framework that produces highly parallel text data relatively inexpensively and on a large scale. The highly parallel nature of this data allows us to use simple n-gram comparisons to measure both the semantic adequacy and lexical dissimilarity of paraphrase candidates. In addition to being simple and efficient to compute, experiments show that these metrics correlate highly with human judgments.

ML ID: 259

- Extending Bayesian Logic Programs for Plan Recognition and Machine Reading

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Sindhu V. Raghavan

Technical Report, PhD proposal, Department of Computer Science, The University of Texas at Austin, May 2011.Statistical relational learning (SRL) is the area of machine learning that integrates both first-order logic and probabilistic graphical models. The advantage of these formalisms is that they can handle both uncertainty and structured/relational data. As a result, they are widely used in domains like social network analysis, biological data analysis, and natural language processing. Bayesian Logic Programs (BLPs), which integrate both first-order logic and Bayesian networks are a powerful SRL formalism developed in the recent past. In this proposal, we focus on applying BLPs to two real worlds tasks -- plan recognition and machine reading.

Plan recognition is the task of predicting an agent's top-level plans based on its observed actions. It is an abductive reasoning task that involves inferring cause from effect. In the first part of the proposal, we develop an approach to abductive plan recognition using BLPs. Since BLPs employ logical deduction to construct the networks, they cannot be used effectively for plan recognition as is. Therefore, we extend BLPs to use logical abduction to construct Bayesian networks and call the resulting model Bayesian Abductive Logic Programs (BALPs). Experimental evaluation on three benchmark data sets demonstrate that BALPs outperform the existing state-of-art methods like Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) for plan recognition.

For future work, we propose to apply BLPs to the task of machine reading, which involves automatic extraction of knowledge from natural language text. Present day information extraction (IE) systems that are trained for machine reading are limited by their ability to extract only factual information that is stated explicitly in the text. We propose to improve the performance of an off-the-shelf IE system by inducing general knowledge rules about the domain using the facts already extracted by the IE system. We then use these rules to infer additional facts using BLPs, thereby improving the recall of the underlying IE system. Here again, the standard inference used in BLPs cannot be used to construct the networks. So, we extend BLPs to perform forward inference on all facts extracted by the IE system and then construct the ground Bayesian networks. We initially use an existing inductive logic programming (ILP) based rule learner to learn the rules. In the longer term, we would like to develop a rule/structure learner that is capable of learning an even better set of first-order rules for BLPs.

ML ID: 258

- Improving the Accuracy and Scalability of Discriminative Learning Methods for Markov Logic Networks

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Tuyen N. Huynh

PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Texas at Austin, May 2011.

159 pages.Many real-world problems involve data that both have complex structures and uncertainty. Statistical relational learning (SRL) is an emerging area of research that addresses the problem of learning from these noisy structured/relational data. Markov logic networks (MLNs), sets of weighted first-order logic formulae, are a simple but powerful SRL formalism that generalizes both first-order logic and Markov networks. MLNs have been successfully applied to a variety of real-world problems ranging from extraction knowledge from text to visual event recognition. Most of the existing learning algorithms for MLNs are in the generative setting: they try to learn a model that is equally capable of predicting the values of all variables given an arbitrary set of evidence; and they do not scale to problems with thousands of examples. However, many real-world problems in structured/relational data are discriminative---where the variables are divided into two disjoint sets input and output, and the goal is to correctly predict the values of the output variables given evidence data about the input variables. In addition, these problems usually involve data that have thousands of examples. Thus, it is important to develop new discriminative learning methods for MLNs that are more accurate and more scalable, which are the topics addressed in this thesis.

First, we present a new method that discriminatively learns both the structure and parameters for a special class of MLNs where all the clauses are non-recursive ones. Non-recursive clauses arise in many learning problems in Inductive Logic Programming. To further improve the predictive accuracy, we propose a max-margin approach to learning weights for MLNs. Then, to address the issue of scalability, we present CDA, an online max-margin weight learning algorithm for MLNs. Ater that, we present OSL, the first algorithm that performs both online structure learning and parameter learning. Finally, we address an issue arising in applying MLNs to many real-world problems: learning in the presence of many hard constraints. Including hard constraints during training greatly increases the computational complexity of the learning problem. Thus, we propose a simple heuristic for selecting which hard constraints to include during training.

Experimental results on several real-world problems show that the proposed methods are more accurate, more scalable (can handle problems with thousands of examples), or both more accurate and more scalable than existing learning methods for MLNs.

ML ID: 257

- Online Max-Margin Weight Learning for Markov Logic Networks

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Tuyen N. Huynh and Raymond J. Mooney

In*Proceedings of the Eleventh SIAM International Conference on Data Mining (SDM11)*, 642--651, Mesa, Arizona, USA, April 2011.Most of the existing weight-learning algorithms for Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) use batch training which becomes computationally expensive and even infeasible for very large datasets since the training examples may not fit in main memory. To overcome this problem, previous work has used online learning algorithms to learn weights for MLNs. However, this prior work has only applied existing online algorithms, and there is no comprehensive study of online weight learning for MLNs. In this paper, we derive a new online algorithm for structured prediction using the primaldual framework, apply it to learn weights for MLNs, and compare against existing online algorithms on three large, real-world datasets. The experimental results show that our new algorithm generally achieves better accuracy than existing methods, especially on noisy datasets.

ML ID: 255

- Implementing Weighted Abduction in Markov Logic

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James Blythe, Jerry R. Hobbs, Pedro Domingos, Rohit J. Kate, Raymond J. Mooney

In*Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics*, 55--64, Oxford, England, January 2011.Abduction is a method for finding the best explanation for observations. Arguably the most advanced approach to abduction, especially for natural language processing, is weighted abduction, which uses logical formulas with costs to guide inference. But it has no clear probabilistic semantics. In this paper we propose an approach that implements weighted abduction in Markov logic, which uses weighted first-order formulas to represent probabilistic knowledge, pointing toward a sound probabilistic semantics for weighted abduction. Application to a series of challenge problems shows the power and coverage of our approach

ML ID: 254

- Integrating Logical Representations with Probabilistic Information using Markov Logic

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Dan Garrette, Katrin Erk, Raymond Mooney

In*Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics*, 105--114, Oxford, England, January 2011.First-order logic provides a powerful and flexible mechanism for representing natural language semantics. However, it is an open question of how best to integrate it with uncertain, probabilistic knowledge, for example regarding word meaning. This paper describes the first steps of an approach to recasting first-order semantics into the probabilistic models that are part of Statistical Relational AI. Specifically, we show how Discourse Representation Structures can be combined with distributional models for word meaning inside a Markov Logic Network and used to successfully perform inferences that take advantage of logical concepts such as factivity as well as probabilistic information on word meaning in context.

ML ID: 253